5,675 results for 2016

  • Higher education expansion, economic reform and labor productivity

    Yao, Yao (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper studies the impact of higher education expansion, along with economic reform of the state sector, in the late 1990’s in China on its labor productivity. I argue that in an economy such as China, where allocation distortions widely exist, an educational policy affects average labor productivity not only through its effect on human capital stock, but also through its effect on human capital allocation across sectors. Thus, its impact could be very limited if misallocation becomes more severe following the policy. I construct a two-sector general equilibrium model with private enterprises and state-owned enterprises, with policy distortions favoring the latter. Households, heterogeneous in ability, make educational choices and occupational choices in a threeperiod overlapping-generations setting. Counterintuitively, quantitative analysis shows an overall negative effect of higher education expansion on average labor productivity (by 5 percent). Though it did increase China’s skilled human capital stock significantly (by nearly 50 percent), the policy had the effect of reallocating relatively more human capital toward the less-productive state sector. This also directed physical capital allocation toward the state sector and further dampened average labor productivity. It was the economic reform that greatly improved the allocation efficiency and complemented educational policy in enhancing labor productivity (by nearly 50 percent).

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  • Settlement payments in Papua New Guinea - Are they Just or Unjust?

    Sukwianomb, Sheila (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper discusses and analyses settlement payments paid to customary landowners in Papua New Guinea by the State for the acquisition of their customary land prior to Independence. These payments had been introduced after customary landowners had raised their grievances over the low purchase prices that they had been allegedly paid by the early European settlers and the colonial administration over their customary land. They are statutorily fixed payments provided under the National Land Registration Act 197. However, since the introduction of these payments, the State has encountered a number of problems. The main problems are firstly that customary landowners are still dissatisfied with the amounts paid and therefore continuously demanding further payments. Secondly, the National Land Commission which was established to administer the process of facilitating these payments under the National land Registration Act is not performing its functions effectively. Therefore this paper aims to study the historical reasons behind introducing these payments and argues that based on the current problems that the State is experiencing with paying landowners’ settlement payments it should consider whether or not to continue to pay customary landowners.

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  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership - A bane or boon to corporate social responsibility?

    Ariyaratne, Nilupuli (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the possible positive and negative effects that the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) can have on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Accordingly, the thesis will analyse these effects to determine whether the TPP could ultimately serve as a tool for improving or crippling the CSR practices of corporations within TPP States.

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  • Getting the definition of 'consumer' right - Worrying about the smaller ones in Fiji

    Khatri, Bhumika (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper argues that the definition of consumer in Fiji should be broadened to include the micro and small enterprises (MSEs). A survey conducted by the National Centre for Small and Micro Enterprises Development in Fiji provides a deep insight into the operation of MSEs in Fiji. The survey findings reveal that MSEs are vulnerable and could be easily exploited by larger companies in the market. One of the ways in which MSEs could be protected is by providing them with the consumer-level protection. This paper argues that MSEs are eligible for consumer protection because like consumers, they also have poor bargaining power, less expertise in making an informed purchasing decision and significant difficulties in seeking remedies against the large suppliers. The paper further contends that the definition of consumer must not only be widened in the general consumer protection law but in the consumer credit legislation and with respect to unfair contract terms too. The arguments against the proposal to broaden the definition are that all businesses, regardless of their size, should be treated the same, there are other relevant laws for the protection of business-consumers and that it would put extra burden on the suppliers, many of whom are small businesses themselves. The paper ends with a draft definition of consumer which includes domestic consumers, micro businesses, whether purchasing for business use or re-sale and small businesses purchasing for business consumption.

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  • Principles that Should Govern the Right of Employers to Monitor Employee’s Computer Mediated Workplace Communication: Private Sector

    Rodriguez, Laura (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores the issues that arise from the surveillance of digital communications at the workplace and how New Zealand has addressed these issues. To achieve that purpose, this paper explores the two prevalent approaches to privacy rights at the workplace: The ownership of the resources (Anglo-American) and the continental Dignity-based (Europe). New Zealand has aligned itself with the Anglo American approach. This approach is less protective of employee’s privacy interests. This paper shall demonstrate that the legal protection of employees from electronic monitoring would be greatly improved by deriving those protections from "human dignity”.

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  • The Origin and Migration of Proportionality

    McManamon, Jane (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper analyses the origin and migration of proportionality covering the history of proportionality, the development into the Basic Law, its migration and current trends including its presence in international and human rights law.

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  • Audiovisual and Chill: An Evaluation of Video Digital Libraries and Catalogues

    Gordon, Timothy Dean (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: This research investigates how well video digital libraries and catalogues used in academic libraries meet user expectations. This is in the context of increasing use and demand for online audiovisual content by the wider community, as well as growing use of audiovisual materials for teaching, learning, and research at academic institutions. It also aims to give an understanding of how well libraries are meeting the challenges of delivering audiovisual materials to users in an on-demand world. Methodology: Twelve platforms—developed between 1996 and 2015—are evaluated against 23 user-centred criteria, divided into four core areas: retrieval functionality, user interface, collection qualities, and user support. Results: The study found that not one of the platforms evaluated met all the evaluation criteria, and identified three key areas in the usability of the video digital libraries and catalogues: search and retrieval, technology, and structure, scope, and strategy. Implications: From this we gain an understanding of performance and usability of video digital libraries and catalogues currently in use by academic libraries. We also learn about the difficulties those working with audiovisual materials are facing, and also of the solutions that are being proposed. Findings of this study could help influence decision making, development of future platforms, and influence policies for delivering audiovisual materials to users.

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  • Barriers to uptake and use of data sharing systems at the University of Auckland - Identification of differences in researcher and academic librarian perceptions

    Simons, Joanne Leigh (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: To identify the differences in researcher and academic librarian perception of barriers to the uptake of data sharing systems by researchers at the University of Auckland in order to address all possible barriers during implementation and improve researcher use of new systems. Methodology: This study has a cross-sectional research design, using a mixed methods research strategy, in particular a sequential exploratory design where preliminary interviews with researchers and academic librarians informed the construction of an online survey tool distributed more widely to researchers and academic librarians within the University of Auckland. Statistical significance testing was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: 103 survey responses were received from researchers, and 18 from academic librarians. There were observable differences in the relative impact assigned by researchers and librarians to the various factors that influence researcher decisions to share data. There are also significant differences in the perceptions of barriers to data-sharing between research disciplines. Implications: There may be a need to improve communications between the library and researchers with regards to the tools and services that they can offer. Library staff may need additional training in support of University researchers, as a proportion did not feel confident answering questions about researcher data-sharing. The research discipline differences in perceptions of barriers to data-sharing mean that a “one-size fits all” strategy for education in and marketing of these services will not be the most effective strategy to address concerns and increase researcher engagement.

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  • The chemistry of the bioluminescence of the New Zealand Glow-Worm

    Watkins, Oliver (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to discover the luciferin responsible for bioluminescence in the New Zealand glow-worm (GW) Arachnocampa luminosa. This work was done in partnership with Dr Miriam Sharpe whose focus was to elucidate the luciferase. In order to determine the structure of the GW luciferin, the luciferin had to be isolated from the GW and the structure elucidated via characterisation. However, luciferin purifications pose a unique isolation challenge, combining the difficulties of isolating material from source organisms, working with unstable materials, and working with enzymatic assays. Furthermore characterisation of luciferins is often difficult due to the small amounts that can be isolated and because luciferins are often highly unstable. Previous work on luciferins in other organisms and on the GW luciferin is reveiwed in Chapter 1. Chapter 1 also reviews the general literature on bioluminescence but with a focus on luciferins rather than luciferases. Chapters 2 describes the collection of Arachnocampa luminosa from the wild, and the development of a GW bioluminescence assay that enabled GW luminescent molecules to be detected. This assay enabled the detection of two different types of luminescence: P type luminescence and L type luminescence. Chapter 3 describes the separation of glow-worm lysates by reverse phase chromatography and how the luminescence assay was used to trace GW luminescent molecules through the purification process. This led to the discovery of two glow-worm luciferin precursors: tyrosine and xanthurenic acid that gave P type luminescence with the GW bioluminescence assay. The compound responsible for the L type luminescence was separated away from the compounds responsible for P type luminescence but could not be isolated. The compound responsible for L type luminescence was found to co-elute with tryptophan and is thought to be the GW luciferin. Chapter 4 describes how commercial samples of these precursors (xanthurenic acid and tyrosine), along with GW enzymes, were used to produce a compound (LRPA) that could be characterised by MS and 1H NMR. A solution of LRPA was found to produce L type luminescence with the luminescence assay showing LRPA to be either the GW luciferin or a closely related compound. Chapter 5 then describes the synthesis of two molecules (N-carbamyl tyrosine and phenol-O-carbamyl tyrosine) that were candidates for a compound that co-eluted with tyrosine. Neither of these molecules matched the unknown candidate which was later found to be 3-OH kynurenine. The research on the New Zealand glow-worm described in this thesis required intensive use of LC-MS techniques. However the research was often slowed by a shortage of glow-worms. These techniques were therefore used to investigate another New Zealand natural products problem involving insect metabolites; the origins of tutin, hyenanchin and the tutin glucosides found in New Zealand toxic honeys. Chapter 6 therefore describes a quantitative LC-MS study that shows that these compounds are of plant, not insect origin and that tutu may use glycosylation to aid in tutu transport.

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  • Aroha Across the Pa: Whānau and the role of Kuia in the 21st century - a Māori perspective

    Ikkala, Shirley (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    He wāhine, he whenua e ngāro ai te tāngata “by women and land men are lost” Kuia held key roles such as whare Mātauranga (repositories of knowledge) within whānau, linking past with the present and it is these roles that were valued and protected within whānau, hapū and iwi. Kuia nurtured and protected these roles and were the kaitiaki (guardians) of whānau, hapū and iwi knowledge thus ensuring the well-being of whānau, hapū and iwi. Historically many of these traditions were passed down through waiata, haka, whakataukī, mōteatea and were the primary means of transferring knowledge, values and belief. However, these traditional means of transferring knowledge have evolved with the advancement of technology and moving into the 21st century. Kuia were and are the kaitiaki (guardians) of the maintenance and transference of history and knowledge for future generations

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  • The Numerical Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Generalised Conformal Field Equations in General Relativity

    Stevens, Christopher Zane (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this work is to develop for the first time a general framework for the Initial Boundary Value Problem (IBVP) of the Generalised Conformal Field Equations (GCFE). At present the only investigation toward obtaining such a framework was given in the mid 90's by Friedrich at an analytical level and is only valid for Anti-de Sitter space-time. There have so far been no numerical explorations into the validity of building such a framework. The GCFE system is derived in the space-spinor formalism and Newman and Penrose's eth-calculus is imposed to obtain proper spin-weighted equations. These are then rigorously tested both analytically and numerically to confirm their correctness. The global structure of the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter space-times are numerically reproduced from an IVP and for the first time, numerical simulations that incorporate both the singularity and the conformal boundary are presented. A framework for the IBVP is then given, where the boundaries are chosen as arbitrary time-like conformal geodesics and where the constraints propagate on (at least) the numerical level. The full generality of the framework is verified numerically for gravitational perturbations of Minkowski and Schwarzschild space-times. A spin-frame adapted to the geometry of future null infinity is developed and the expressions for the Bondi-mass and the Bondi-time given by Penrose and Rindler are generalised. The Bondi-mass is found to equate to the Schwarzschild-mass for the standard Schwarzschild space-time and the famous Bondi-Sachs mass loss is reproduced for the gravitationally perturbed case.

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  • 'It’s just so bloody hard’ : recommendations for improving health interventions and maternity support services for disabled women

    Payne, Deborah; Guerin, Bernadette; McPherson, Kathryn; Roy, Dianne; Giddings, Lynne; Farquhar, Cindy (2016-08)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Paucity of information about Aotearoa/New Zealand disabled women’s experiences of becoming mothers and the enablers and barriers they may face. • Overseas studies show that disabled women do encounter physical, attitudinal barriers. • Studies have also indicated that health professionals lack the knowledge and experience to provide appropriate care. • 2014 Maternity Consumer Survey found that disabled women were less satisfied overall with their maternity care in comparison to non- disabled women. Study aims 1. To investigate the experiences of women with either physical disabilities or sensory impairments in choosing whether to become mothers, including the barriers and facilitators to positive experiences of disabled motherhood; 2. To investigate the perspectives of health care professionals regarding the facilitators and barriers to providing best quality maternity and child care services for disabled women; and 3. To seek consensus on priority actions and strategies towards our overall aim of improving health outcomes for disabled women during pregnancy, childbirth and early childcare.

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  • The Two Towers : appraisal and leadership development for middle leaders

    Bassett, Martin; Robson, Joanne (2016-04)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    "Middle leaders" Two Towers : appraisal and leadership development Crisis in the "middle" - then & now So what? Now what?

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  • Osteopathic attitudes, knowledge and practices in melanoma screening

    Friedlander, Tim; Horgan, Carol; Hilton, Craig (2016-08-13)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Role for Osteopaths?  Osteopaths are Primary Practitioners  Osteopaths often see and examine patients in a state of undress  As health care providers, there is a likelihood that osteopaths can be trained to a good level of skill in melanoma screening  Early Detection Advisory Group (2006) recommends a programme to “increase knowledge about skin cancer, particularly melanoma, among other relevant health workers”

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  • Challenging positional authority : navigating leadership as collaboration

    Wrightson, Helen; Lee-Anne, Turton (2016-08-05)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Challenging positional authority Collective nature of leadership Kaupapa Māori model of leadership Building people’s capabilities Sustainable leadership Distributed leadership is transformational

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  • What Happened at the End of Lapita: Lapita to Post-Lapita Pottery Transition in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    Wu, Pei-hua (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This study presents a detailed Lapita to Post-Lapita sequence/transition with chronology at particular sites in west New Britain, through the medium of pottery analysis of style and production. The data allow me to address the research questions: (1) the cultural change that happened toward the end of Lapita, and (2) the issue of cultural continuity/discontinuity between the Lapita and Post-Lapita periods. This study identified a cultural change with greater break down and regionalization/diversification of the Lapita societies in the Late Lapita phase around and after 2750/2700 BP. This study also identified detailed pottery characterization, production, and provenance in west New Britain through compositional analysis, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which helps in understanding the interactions in the Lapita and Post-Lapita periods between west New Britain and other regions. In addition, this study identified a distinctive vessel form of double spouted pots of Lapita pottery that might originate from Island Southeast Asia, and demonstrates that after Lapita peoples had reached the Bismarcks, they maintained contact with homeland communities in Island Southeast Asia, and the double spouted pots were later introduced to the Bismarcks through interactions.

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  • Dire Straits v The Cure: Emphasising the Problem or the Solution in Charitable Fundraising for International Development

    Clark, Jeremy; Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Knowles, Stephen (2016-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to test the effect on charitable donations to international development NGOs (INGOs) of emphasising current deprivation in a developing country, versus emphasising the potential good a donation can achieve. Using a double-blind dictator experiment with earned endowments, we find that varying the information/emphasis has no significant effect on total donations, or on the probability of donating. An emphasis on current deprivation does, however, significantly raise the variance of donations, so that conditional on donating, it significantly raises donations compared to emphasising potential gains from the charity’s work.

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  • Motherhood and Family Law

    Mackenzie, Fiona Amy (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Throughout the broad sweep of history and related disciplines, including the law, can be found instruction with respect to the issue of motherhood. In one sense, it transcends culture; in another, it is a cultural construct. It is imbued with gender specificity and is profoundly important to children. This thesis explores motherhood’s relationship with family law and seeks to illustrate how, through uneasy tensions over time, it may have been compromised in modern child care law in New Zealand. It discusses whether parenting law should continue to adopt a gender neutral approach or whether, in considering a child’s welfare and best interests, there may be a case for greater recognition and restoration of gendered parenting relationships and perhaps, therefore, a repeal of s4(3) of the Care of Children Act 2004.

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  • Does a ‘baby-led’ approach to complementary feeding alter the risk of choking and growth faltering in infants aged 0-12 months?

    Fangupo, Louise Joan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Although baby-led approaches to complementary feeding such as Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) are growing in popularity, research exploring the safety and efficacy of these approaches is sparse. Concerns have also been expressed regarding the potential for BLW to increase the risk of choking, growth faltering and iron deficiency. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial investigated whether a form of BLW, modified to address these concerns, was a suitable way to introduce solids to infants. Aim: To investigate whether the BLISS approach to complementary feeding alters the risk of food-related choking and growth faltering among infants aged 0-12 months. Methods: Dunedin families (n=206) were randomly allocated to a Control or intervention (BLISS) group. Control families (n=101) received the standard government funded ‘Well Child’ health service. BLISS families (n=105) received Well Child care plus at least 8 parent contacts for advice and support on following the BLISS approach. Data on the frequency of choking and gagging, the characteristics of choking events, and the impact of adherence to a baby-led approach to infant feeding were collected by questionnaires when infants were 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 months of age. Choking and gagging frequencies were also assessed by daily calendars at 6 and 8 months. Data on infant exposure to foods thought to pose a choking risk were obtained using three-day weighed diet records at 7 and 12 months. Parental feeding practices were evaluated by questionnaires at 7, 8, 9 and 12 months. Infant growth was determined from repeated anthropometric measurements (infant weight at 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 months, and length at 6 and 12 months). Growth was checked against five “growth triggers” to ensure the early identification of infants at potential risk. Growth faltering was defined as a weight deceleration of >1.34 of a weight-for-age z-score (using the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards) between 6 and 9 months. Results: Overall, 35% of infants choked at least once between 6 and 8 months of age but there were no significant group differences in the number of choking events at any time point (all p>0.20). BLISS infants gagged more frequently than Controls at 6 months (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.17), but less frequently than Controls at 8 months (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.87). At 7 and 12 months of age, 52% and 94% of infants respectively were offered food thought to pose a choking risk during weighed diet recording, although no statistically significant group differences were observed at either age (all p>0.30). Consistently safe parental feeding practices were often lacking in both groups, particularly at 12 months when only 44% of Control and 65% of BLISS infants always had an adult sitting with them while they ate. Although 32 infants (16 Control, 16 BLISS) met at least one growth trigger between 6 and 12 months, only 3 (2 BLISS, 1 Control) were potentially serious enough to be referred to the study paediatrician. However, growth improved in all three infants and no child met the criterion for growth faltering. Conclusions: Infants following the BLISS approach to complementary feeding were no more likely to choke or experience growth faltering than Control infants, although it is acknowledged that this was a relatively small study.

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  • Lapita Plants, People and Pigs

    Tromp, Monica (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Lapita cultural complex is associated with the Austronesian expansion out of Island Southeast Asia beginning approximately 3,500 BP. Sites associated with this archaeological culture have been found from the coast of New Guinea in Near Oceania and out past the Solomon Islands into Remote Oceania as far south as New Caledonia and as far east as Samoa by 2,700 BP. Major components of this culture include the commensal animals and horticultural plants that were transported with them as a portable subsistence economy during their voyaging. The commensal animal component of this package is reasonably well established, but the plant portion is less clear. This is primarily due to the scarcity of plant macro remains that have been found from archaeological sites and the lack of specificity of actual foods consumed in stable isotope analyses of archaeological human and animal bone. One direct way to explore the dietary plant component is to identify micro particles of plants (microfossils) that have been trapped within calcified plaque (dental calculus). The primary aim of this thesis is to examine the relationship between Lapita and immediately post-Lapita people and plants. The secondary aim is to examine whether human and commensal pig plant diets are similar and if it is possible to use pig diet as a proxy for human diet when human remains are not available for analysis. To address these aims, microfossils were extracted from human and pig dental calculus from four different sites: the SAC site on Watom Island, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Teouma on Efate Island, and Vao and Uripiv islands off the coast of northeast Malakula in Vanuatu. The samples were examined using a combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. All of the samples analysed date between Lapita (~3000 cal BP) and post-Lapita (~2500 cal BP) periods. These sites allow for a comparison of 1) an initial colonizing population (Teouma) and later populations (Watom, Uripiv and Vao), 2) Near Oceanic (Watom) and Remote Oceanic (Teouma, Uripiv and Vao) sites and 3) the wild versus cultivated plant components of their diets. The results show a much more diverse plant diet than has previously been shown. The importance of indigenous trees and shrubs to both Lapita and post-Lapita people analysed from all sites has been demonstrated in this study. Novel results include the first instance of banana seed phytoliths outside of the Bismarck Archipelago and an early introduction of Dioscorea esculenta to Vanuatu. The appearance of these non-indigenous plants at Teouma provides support for the concept of a “transported landscape”. However, the majority of identified plants were indigenous tree crops that suggest Lapita colonists were at least partly reliant on the forest resources that already existed on the islands they inhabited. This study represents the first direct plant evidence for Lapita and immediately post-Lapita diet of humans and pigs from this region.

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