2,433 results for 2017

  • He Tirohanga I te Oranga o ngā Tāngata Whai Ora o te Hapori Haumanu o Te Whare Moana (Māori Men’s Perspectives of Rehabilitation in the Moana House Therapeutic Community: A Qualitative Enquiry)

    Ashdown, Jacob Dylan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand/Aotearoa, there are various rehabilitation programmes that aim specifically to reduce criminal offending among Māori. Currently, there is a lack of research investigating the experiences of rehabilitation from clients’ perspectives. The aim of this present study was to enhance our understanding of the lived experiences of Māori men who were participating in the Moana House residential therapeutic community (TC) rehabilitation programme in New Zealand. Semi-structured open- ended interviews were conducted one-on-one by a Master’s student studying psychology who is a Moana House staff member and also of Māori decent. Seven residents of the Moana House TC aged 22-48 who all identified as Māori were interviewed on topics relating to life in a TC, barriers to recovery, education, and the relevance of culture in the TC. Thematic analysis of the interview data yielded four themes. The first theme, ‘The importance of healing family relationships’, addresses the positive and negative aspects of involving family in the recovery process. The second theme, ‘The relevance of Māori culture in rehabilitation’, emphasizes the relevance of Māori culture and providing culturally relevant treatment in rehabilitation. The third theme, ‘Increased self-awareness’, explores motivations for change and describes how the group therapy based approach of the TC facilitated learning about the self and influenced behavioural change. The fourth theme, ‘Aspirations for education’, describes participants’ educational desires and needs in their future recovery. The findings suggest that culturally relevant rehabilitation programmes that allow for the inclusion of family in the rehabilitation process are valuable for individuals in recovery. Furthermore, the holistic approach of the TC model may be particularly relevant for Māori men. This thesis concludes with recommendations for service delivery and suggests lines of inquiry for future research.

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  • Policy, Operations and Outcomes in the New Zealand Employment Jurisdiction 1990-2008

    Robson, Susan (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of the policy for, and the operations of, the dispute resolution institutions established successively by the Employment Contracts Act 1991 and the Employment Relations Act 2000, examined the relationship between dispute resolution system design and success in meeting government employment policy objectives. The grounded theory research method was utilised to first gather archived material from the Department of Labour (now the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment) about policy for, and the operations of, the institutions of each period under review. This material was organised for each period under review by commencing with a narrative of the policy that established the institutions, and following with a description of the operations of those institutions, policy changes, and the outcomes (in terms of policy objectives) that resulted. Each institution created by statute is described separately. From these narratives common themes emerged as subjects of further analysis and this formed a concluding part of each operational chapter. The final chapter draws from this theme analysis. The dominant themes concerned the transition from collectivised to individualised approaches to dispute resolution, the arrival of lawyers to a jurisdiction that had historically excluded or restricted them, the speed with which individual disputes (personal grievances) dominated the work of the institutions, and the emergence of two distinct and different advocacy and resolution cultures: a collectivist culture of union and employer association advocates and mediators; and an individualist culture of lawyers, employment advocates and adjudicators. The individualist culture imposed the norms, practices, costs and outcomes of the civil courts on the employment institutions, notwithstanding specific policy prescription (in both statutes) against that form of resolution. This study concludes that the relationship of advocacy culture to institutional structure is key to predicting effects on policy objectives. It is furthermore possible that success in meeting those objectives may be more dependent on advocacy culture than institutional structure.

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  • Hitting the Wrong Note: Recognition of Music Emotions Decreases with Age

    Sutcliffe, Ryan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Effective emotion recognition underlies successful social interactions. Abundant research with facial emotions indicates that those necessary skills decline with age. Deficits in emotional understanding, and therefore social functioning, might impact mental health among the aging population. Consequently, there is a need to identify how and why age influences emotion recognition, such that measures can be taken to reduce negative impacts. Emotion recognition in other modalities has received some, but not adequate empirical investigation. The aims of the present study were to extend the aging and emotion literature using a novel set of music stimuli, and to investigate which mechanisms might explain consistently observed age effects. Young and older adults labelled emotions in a validated set of music clips and in an existing set of faces, and made age estimations in another set of faces. Older participants were significantly worse than young participants in each of the tasks. With respect to specific emotions, there were age-related decreases in recognition of happy, sad, peaceful, angry, and fearful music clips, and sad and angry faces. Older adults’ difficulties in each of the three tasks were not correlated with each other, suggesting that facial emotions are deciphered somewhat independently from face processing generally, and from emotions expressed in music. Fluid IQ did correlate with older participants’ emotion recognition in faces and music. However, age predicted emotion performance within the older group when fluid IQ was accounted for, inconsistent with a cognitive aging explanation. Similarly, age-related decreases in general motivation did not appear to underlie group differences because age group was negatively associated with performance on each task, after controlling for the other tasks. These results are discussed with respect to previous studies, and future research possibilities. Neuropsychological differences most likely underlie age-related decreases in emotion recognition ability, and should be the focus of research to come.

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  • Synthesis of shape-controlled magnetic nanoparticles and a novel route for their surface modification in suspension for biomedical applications

    Jaskolska, Dagmara Ewa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SNPs) have many potential biomedical applications, for instance as MRI contrast agents, which was of specific interest in this work. Various techniques were used to synthesise spherical and non-spherical SNPs of a desired size in suspension. The size, shape and composition of the resulting NPs were characterised by DLS, TEM, TGA, ICP-MS, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Magnetic properties of the NPs in solid form were characterised by VSM and SQUID, and further discussed within the context of their size, shape, crystallinity and the synthetic methods used to produce the NPs. Langevin function fitting to M-H curves yielded the magnetic moment of the particles (μ) and a magnetic domain size (d). Magnetic resonance properties of the NPs in suspension were characterised through NMRD measurements, and further analysed according to a well-accepted superparamagnetic theory. Finally, the magnetometry results were compared with those obtained from NMRD analysis. Competitive stabiliser desorption (CSD)-based cluster growth in the presence of silica was exploited in this thesis. A series of experiments were performed in order to gain an understanding of the mechanism of this process. Parameters which govern the CSD-based growth of clusters were identified. Next, a novel CSD-ligand exchange method performed on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) clusters and discrete particles in suspension was successfully developed. Various secondary ligands were trialled which rendered the NPs dispersible in more polar solvents. A new molecule, 2-azido-2-methyl-propionic acid 2-phoshonooxy-hexyl ester (C6), was synthesised and used in the CSD-ligand exchange process. ATR-IR spectroscopy was appointed as an effective method for the pre-selection of a potential secondary ligand which could be utilised during the CSD-ligand exchange procedure. Various experimental vessels were developed in order to scale up the CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange experiments, and to address some technical issues that arose while performing the experiments on a small scale. The results of the CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange procedures performed in these vessels were presented and discussed. Moreover, a glass vessel with a Teflon holder for TLC plates was successfully developed and used for both CSD-cluster growth and ligand exchange procedures. This approached not only enabled the scale-up of the experiments, but also allowed an advantageous change from silica gel to silica gel-covered TLC plates.

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  • Low-intensity land use in grassland catchments: Effects on a large, oligotrophic lake

    Weaver, Amy Katherine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In southern New Zealand, many upland streams drain into large oligotrophic lakes surrounded by native grassland, low-intensity farming, and small urban centers. Little work has been undertaken to determine the impact low-intensity development has on nutrient dynamics and microbial activity in these large lake systems. Lake Wanaka, Central Otago, was chosen as a study site since the recent appearance of nuisance organic aggregates and changes in phytoplankton community structure suggest the lake is not in a steady state. Research undertaken for this project included intensive sampling of tributaries to the lake during different seasons and hydrological conditions, following the path of two tributaries out into the lake, and laboratory-based experiments. In the Wanaka catchment, pasture cover correlated positively with stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations were not influenced by weather-related variables, but temperature and soil moisture mitigated the influence of pasture cover on surface water DOC concentration under very dry or wet conditions. Neither land use nor weather-related conditions correlated with total phosphorus (TP) or dissolved phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in streams, possibly reflecting good P-binding in soils, low-intensity agriculture in the catchment and/or lack of sampling during high flow events. Amending lake water with stream water in the laboratory did not influence the production of sticky polysaccharides (i.e. transparent exopolymer particles (TEP)), but enriching treatments with high concentrations of N and P increased TEP 1.7 to 9.3 times over unamended treatments. Phytoplankton cell numbers, diatom abundance, and chl a also increased in response to nutrient-enrichment, and organic aggregates were visible in nutrient-enriched treatments within 6 days. In the field, the intermixing depth of a main river inflow varied under stratified and un-stratified conditions, affecting where catchment-derived material was delivered in the Lake. Nutrient and DOC concentrations in the Matukituki River were within range of the Lake, and the river plume was capable of stimulating phytoplankton growth in nearshore waters. Despite similar bulk DOC concentrations, dissolved organic matter (DOM) character and lability differed between the River and the Lake. DOM from deep-sourced lake water contained more aromatic, refractory structures than shallower lake water or river water. The river had almost double the number of organic sulphur compounds than the lake, including potential sulfonates. The source of the S is unknown, but may be geologic in origin or reflect agricultural activity in the River catchment. In the laboratory, riverine bacterial communities could break down a diverse array of organic substances regardless of season, suggesting a consistent labile supply of DOM. In contrast, organic substrate use patterns in the lake were seasonal, and varied by depth. Lake water amended with Matukituki River water stimulated bacterial respiration and uptake of DOC and P, but did not affect bacterial productivity, which may reflect limitations of the experimental design. My results indicate low intensity land use in grassland catchments affects nutrient flux and microbial processes in Lake Wanaka. These data provide a foundation for future research on land development and microbial dynamics in similar large, oligotrophic lake systems.

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  • The experience of cancer treatment with curative intent: A mixed-methods exploration with patients and oncology healthcare professionals

    Aldaz Barba, Bruno Eduardo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    It is estimated that 35% of patients receiving oncology treatment may be affected by psychological distress, making a compelling case for researchers to further investigate how psychosocial supportive services or interventions could best help patients reduce distress and enhance well-being during oncology treatment. The aim of this thesis was to explore patients' experiences and their psychosocial needs during the active phase of oncology treatment with curative intent. The empirical research undertaken in this thesis consisted of Studies 1 and 2 (qualitative phase) followed by Study 3 (quantitative phase). A mixed-methods approach allowed the gathering and integration of complementary qualitative and quantitative findings underpinned by a pragmatic epistemology and psychological theories of uncertainty, stress and coping. The aim of Study 1 was to gather in-depth insights into the experiences of patients with a range of primary sites of cancer. Ten patients receiving oncology treatment with curative intent participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Six themes were identified using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: (i) diminished well-being; (ii) role changes in intimate relationships; (iii) heightened awareness of limited time; (iv) a new order of priorities; (v) taking things as they come and; (vi) development of trust in healthcare professionals (HPs). Study 2 involved a multi-disciplinary sample of nine HPs who also participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Six themes were identified using Thematic Analysis: (i) treating patients as people; (ii) facing death brings new meanings to life; (iii) social support as a buffer to distress; (iv) barriers to psychosocial supportive services; (v) acceptance, denial and endurance of difficulties and; (vi) compatibility of modern and alternative medicine. HPs endorsed a patient-centred approach that enables the effective identification and provision of services to meet the needs of patients with cancer. The quantitative phase of this thesis was developed following integration of the findings of the two studies within the qualitative phase. The aim of Study 3 was to investigate daily distress, well-being, illness uncertainty, and experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty across a week of active oncology treatment with curative intent. Thirty-one patients with heterogeneous primary sites of cancer produced a total of 213 days' worth of data. Analyses were conducted at both the between- and within-person levels. On the days participants reported higher levels of experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty, they also reported corresponding increases in their levels of distress. Moreover, experiential avoidance of illness uncertainty mediated the relationship between average daily distress and well-being across a week of oncology treatment. Taken together, this thesis supports previous qualitative and quantitative studies and offers novel contributions to the psycho-oncology literature by exploring patients' relevant psychosocial experiences during oncology treatment complemented by the perspectives of oncology HPs. A novel contribution of this thesis to the literature consisted in its within-person idiographic analysis, as well as detecting experiential avoidance as an unhelpful emotional regulatory strategy in coping with illness uncertainty. The findings of this thesis may have practical application to psychosocial supportive services and future interventions, particularly by helping patients overcome experiential avoidance and encouraging acceptance of illness and treatment uncertainty as two helpful ways of coping during oncology treatment with curative intent, which may be beneficial in reducing distress and enhancing well-being.

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  • The reactions of superoxide with tyrosyl radicals on proteins

    Das, Andrew Bejoy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Superoxide is continuously removed from cells by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Genetic knockout studies have shown that SOD is crucial for survival, suggesting that higher levels of superoxide are damaging. Tyrosyl radicals are a likely target because they react rapidly with superoxide, either by reduction to form tyrosine (repair), or by oxidative addition to form reactive hydroperoxides. Because tyrosyl radicals are formed on proteins under pathological and physiological conditions, taking a closer at look these reactions will shed light on the role of superoxide and SOD in aerobic organisms. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the reaction between superoxide and protein tyrosyl radicals generated by different mechanisms. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sperm whale myoglobin is a useful model because tyrosyl radicals are produced, facilitating myoglobin dimer formation. When myoglobin was treated with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, dimer formation was greatly decreased. SOD restored dimer formation in a dose dependent manner. Tryptic digestion of products, analysed by mass spectrometry, revealed evidence for repair and addition, with addition occurring specifically on Tyr151. Overall, the ratio of repair to addition was approximately 10:1. These results show that superoxide is capable of reacting with tyrosyl radicals formed on proteins, with tyrosine hydroperoxide and tyrosine hydroxide as potential products. To detect superoxide addition products in biological samples, other members of my host lab began antibody development. Attempts to produce sufficient quantities of tyrosine hydroxide as an antigen led to the discovery that glutathione conjugates readily to this product. My initial attempts to detect the glutathione adduct on oxidised myoglobin via mass spectrometry and immunoblotting revealed that the adduct was reversible when excess glutathione was removed. After treatment with sodium borohydride the glutathione adduct was detected in tryptic digest samples as well as via anti-GSH immunoblotting. These results suggest that any tyrosine hydroxide arising in vivo should be conjugated to thiols, with implications for protein aggregation and cell signalling. During oxidative stress, the transfer of radicals from free tyrosine to proteins can occur. Using insulin aspart as a model protein, free tyrosine transferred radical equivalents to the protein when oxidation was initiated by a peroxidase. In the absence of superoxide, a number of dityrosine products formed as measured by mass spectrometry. Superoxide prevented the formation of these dityrosine products, and addition products were detected, both on the whole protein as well as in tryptic digests. Superoxide addition was localised to Tyr14. These results suggest that tyrosine hydroperoxide formation on proteins may occur under conditions of oxidative stress that involve peroxidases and free tyrosine. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyses the rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis, with catalysis requiring radical transfer along a pathway of tyrosines. Superoxide has been shown to remove the radical signal in vitro, and increase the mass of the whole protein corresponding to superoxide addition. Therefore, RNR activity was measured in sodΔ strains of S. cerevisiae. RNR activity in cell lysate from both sod2Δ and sod1Δ cells was decreased compared to wt. When superoxide production was increased with the paraquat treatment, sod1Δ cells were the most sensitive with respect to RNR activity loss and decreased growth. These results suggest that SOD is important for maintaining RNR activity. In summary, the findings in this thesis support the hypothesis that the reactions of superoxide with protein tyrosyl radicals could contribute to superoxide toxicity. They also show that SOD has the potential to mitigate this damage.

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  • Characterising relational view updates using relative information capacity

    Stanger, Nigel (2017-01)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    This item includes a version that corrects to some minor errata that appeared in the published version.

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  • The impact of copy number variation on gout, and the apple genome

    James, Boocock (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes, and a growing body of evidence suggests that genes affected by CNV are enriched in processes associated with environmental responses. Traditionally, the analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and SNP microarray datasets has focused on the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), and small insertions and deletions (INDELS). However, by employing different analytical techniques CNV can be identified in these same datasets. Using NGS data from domesticated apple (Malus x Domestica Borkh) accessions, and SNP microarray data from participants with gout and publicly available controls, I investigated, for the first time, the impact that CNV has within the genome of the domesticated apple and on gout. Although seemingly unrelated, gout disease and resistance to pathogens and infection in apples both involve the immune sys- tem. This is important because genomic regions harbouring CNVs are enriched in immune system functions within all eukaryotes investigated to date, making the apple genome and gout disease novel contexts where an investigation of CNV would be worthwhile. Genome-wide association studies in gout have identified a number of common associated SNPs. Many of these variants have been implicated in uric acid metabolism while the genetic factors involved in the inflammatory response have remained elusive. Since CNVs are enriched in immune-related functions, they represent a potential source for the genetic components of the immune response in gout. Using Immunochip SNP array data from a sample set con- sisting of 468 participants with gout and 1,000 publicly-available controls, I performed an analysis of CNV in gout. While no overall burden of rare (fre- quency < 1%) CNV was observed, a deletion on chromosome 5 between po- sitions 686,123-731,394 was discovered to be protective for gout (Pdeletions=0.02, Pcorrected=0.09). Using qPCR, this association was replicated across the full range of integer copy-numbers at this region (ORinteger−copy−number=1.28, P=0.04). Interestingly, there is functional connection between TPPP, which is a gene that overlapped the CNV, and Colchicine, a compound that is used to treat gout. Specifically, TPPP promotes acetylation of α-tubulin by inhibiting HDAC6 and SIRT2, and Colchicine prevents the polymerisation of tubulin, indirectly reducing the levels of acetylated α-tubulin. A non-additive interaction between the CNV region at chr5:686123-731394 and rs2231142 was detected (Interaction term OR=0.43, P=0.018). This provided evidence that this CNV region influences microtubule dynamics. TPPP has been implicated in diseases of the brain, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Since gout and/or high uric acid levels are protective risk factors for these disorders, CNV of chr5:686123-731394 may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underpinning this epidemiological observation. The copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) of the apple genome were identified using NGS data derived from 30 accessions of apple. This was achieved by analysing this data using the read-depth method, as implemented in the CN- Vrd2 software. To improve the reliability of the results, a quality control and analysis procedure was developed. This involved checking for organelle DNA, not repeat masking, and the determination of CNVR identity using a permutation testing procedure. Overall, I identified 876 CNVRs, which spanned 3.5% of the apple genome. To verify that detected CNVRs were not artifacts, I analysed the B-allele-frequencies (BAF) within a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array dataset derived from a screening of 185 individual apple accessions and found the CNVRs were enriched for SNPs having aberrant BAFs (P < 1 × 10−13, Fisher’s Exact test). Putative CNVRs overlapped 845 gene models and were enriched for resistance (R) gene models (P < 1 × 10−22, Fisher’s exact test). Of note was a cluster of resistance gene models on chromosome 2 near a region containing multiple major gene loci conferring resistance to apple scab. I present the first analysis and catalog of CNVRs in the M. x domestica genome. The enrichment of the CNVRs with R gene models and their overlap with gene loci of agricultural significance draw attention to a form of unexplored genetic variation in apple. While these investigations of CNV in apple and gout represent significant advances in their respective research areas, they also improve our understanding of CNV more broadly within the eukaryotes. In apple, resistance-genes were enriched in CNVRs, and the only CNV that was associated with gout is hypothesised to be involved in immunity. This reiterates just how crucial CNV is to the survival of many eukaryotic species.

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  • Excavations on Motupore Island (Vol 1)

    Allen, Jim (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Regulating the Tobacco Retail Environment in New Zealand

    Robertson, Lindsay (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Tobacco use is a leading risk factor for preventable mortality and causes around 5,000 deaths in New Zealand (NZ) each year. In 2011, the Government committed to making NZ smokefree by 2025, through reducing smoking prevalence and tobacco availability to minimal levels. However, the retail environment for tobacco remains relatively unregulated, with no restrictions on where tobacco can be sold, or requirements for tobacco retailers to be licensed. This thesis examines the potential for regulating the tobacco retail environment to reduce smoking prevalence and achieve NZ’s 2025 goal. Methods This research comprises five distinct projects. The first is a narrative literature review on tobacco retailing and smoking, and potential policy options to regulate the tobacco retail environment. The second project is a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between point-of-sale tobacco marketing and smoking. The third and fourth projects involve qualitative research with tobacco control sector key informants and tobacco retailers, in which stakeholders’ views of the tobacco retail environment and regulatory options are examined. The final project is a survey with a complex design to investigate smokers’ perceptions of the relative effectiveness of five policy options to reduce tobacco availability. Results The available evidence suggests that greater access to tobacco retail outlets and exposure to tobacco retail products at the point-of-sale are significant risk factors for youth smoking initiation, and for relapse after a quit attempt among adults. Key informants within the tobacco control sector believe that licensing of tobacco retailers is an important intermediate step in achieving the 2025 goal, and envisage tobacco being available only at a small number of specialised outlets in the long-term. Retailers’ perceptions of potential tobacco retail policies were mixed; some were supportive of measures to reduce tobacco availability and the 2025 goal, though several expressed ambivalence towards licensing policies. Retailers tended to be more supportive of tobacco retail policies where the rationale was to protect children from tobacco-related harm, and where this intention was explicit. Among NZ smokers, of the five policy options to reduce tobacco availability that were tested, two were perceived as most effective: i) tobacco only sold at half the existing liquor stores, and ii) tobacco only sold at pharmacies. Each of these policies was rated more likely to prevent youth smoking initiation, and at least as likely to help smokers to quit, relative to a benchmark policy of continued tobacco taxation. Conclusions In order for the Government to achieve its own goal of reducing tobacco availability to minimal levels by 2025, regulation of the tobacco retail environment is needed. The recent implementation of legislation banning point-of-sale tobacco displays demonstrates that policy interventions in this environment are feasible. The tobacco control sector strongly supports licensing of tobacco retailers and measures to reduce tobacco availability. Retailers are unlikely to strongly oppose these policies, particularly if the public health rationale is clear. Based on smokers’ perceptions, policies that substantially reduce tobacco availability and remove it from smokers’ usual places of purchase could be at least as effective as tax increases, in terms of reducing smoking initiation and supporting cessation.

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  • Excavations on Motupore Island. (Vol 2)

    Allen, Jim (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Children of the Revolution: Bolan, Bowie and the Carnivalesque

    Blair, Alison (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    David Bowie and Marc Bolan were two glam rock stars who, in the 1970s, presented audiences with carnivalesque ‘alternatives’ to everyday reality. As a time of crisis and transformation, the 1970s in Britain has been characterised as a period of particularly difficult socio-economic turmoil, in a still relatively conservative society – particularly in relation to conventional norms of identity, ‘authenticity’, gender and sexuality. Bolan and Bowie, through their performance personae and narrative spaces, provided both a form of ‘escape’ from the lived experience of these socio-economic difficulties, and a counter-hegemonic alternative to these aforementioned norms. That is, their ‘alternate identities’ challenged conventional norms of authenticity and of identity itself, and their ‘alternate sexualities’ presented audiences with counter-hegemonic representations of gender and sexuality. Moreover, their ‘alternate realities’ were carnivalesque, Otherworldly narrative spaces that their alternate identities inhabited, providing an escape from the difficulties of life in 1970s Britain. In this thesis, I explore these various ‘alternatives’ through a Bakhtinian framework in order to discuss the ways that they represented, in Bakhtin’s terms, a carnivalesque ‘second life of the people’ – a social safety valve and escape from these increasingly difficult socio-economic conditions. In chapter one, I place Bolan and Bowie within the context of 1970s Britain, and within the context of the glam rock genre. I explore the ways that glam has been framed as either reactionary or radical, and I align my own research with the latter approach. In chapter two, I discuss the ways that Bolan and Bowie adopted the ‘carnival mask’, presenting their counter-hegemonic ‘identities’, and in chapter three I explore their non-normative representations of gender and sexuality in terms of Bakhtin’s ‘world upside down’ and the ‘lower bodily stratum’. In chapter four, I discuss the ‘Otherworlds’ that these ‘identities’ inhabited – carnivalesque spaces – which inverted conventional hierarchies and presented a radical, utopian critique of British contemporary life under capitalism.

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  • Ripple-Associated Hippocampal Activity and Recognition Memory in Rats during Rest

    Nisha, Fareesha Nigar (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The hippocampus, has been established as a key structure in the processing of memory operations, with its neural activity proposed to play a critical role in memory consolidation. Memory impairment is prevalent in schizophrenia, with abnormal hippocampal structure being one of the most robust findings among diagnosed patients. This observation led to the hypothesis that hippocampal neural activity would show abnormalities as well, which possibly is associated to the memory impairment displayed in schizophrenia. Therefore, the current study, with the aid of a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia (MIA), aimed to investigate whether memory deficits are a consequence of altered hippocampal neural activity, specifically the sharp-wave ripples that occur during rest periods. It was hypothesized that a) the MIA rats would show impairment on a hippocampal-dependent memory task (displaced objects), compared to control rats due to the hippocampus being dysfunctional in the MIA model of schizophrenia, and b) ripple characteristics (i.e., duration, percentage, and rate of ripple) would differ in the MIA rats which would be related to the predicted deficit in their ability to discriminate between displaced and non-displaced objects. Eight MIA and eight control rats were trained on an object recognition memory paradigm consecutively for three days, at the end of which their ability to discriminate between displaced and non-displaced objects was assessed. In addition, an hour of hippocampal-ripple activity was recorded immediately after interaction with the objects while the animal was in a resting state. The main findings of this study were a) an intact memory for object recognition was found in both group of rats; contrary to our hypothesis, and b) all measures of ripple activity were found to be significantly elevated in the MIA rats, compared to controls, supporting the first part of our second hypothesis. Further analysis revealed a negative correlation between two of the three ripple measures recorded after the day 2, familiar object exposure procedure, and object discrimination performance measure acquired during the test phase, when the analysis included both MIA and control animals. When the two groups were analyzed separately, it was only the control group that displayed a significant relationship. This suggests that ripples in the MIA animals may have been to a certain extent, pathological, no longer relating to memory performance. Further research utilizing various other memory paradigms could shed more light on the current findings.

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  • When the numbers do not add up: Health research and health disparities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Tumilty, Emma (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Decisions about health policy and services are, in part, informed by research. In this thesis, I argue health research and the systems which generate and then use it, fail to consider marginalised populations. As a consequence, decision-makers in service and policy settings lack appropriate information to address health inequity and in fact contribute to it through their regard for these marginalised populations. To support this argument, I draw on a range of empirical work. I review public records for evidence of marginalised groups’ inclusion in research and the activities that use research to decide policy or service provision. I then examine the role of ethics committees in reviewing justice and the systems and structures that researchers who work with marginalised populations navigate. Using this information, I then look at reasons and potential solutions to this injustice. I scrutinised public records for representation of three case populations considered marginalised in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) in evidence-generating activities and evidence-using activities to establish a lack of inclusion. Based on the data available, representation was found to be lacking. In NZ, approved ethics committees have the task of ethically assessing health research that has the potential to create evidence. The National Ethical Advisory Committee (NEAC) of NZ sets out what justice entails in the review and practice of research. I surveyed committee members to understand their views on justice requirements and their review of them. The survey response rate was too low to be representative but provided starting points for discussion. Using an institutional ethnographic method, I analysed interviews with senior researchers (informants) who work with marginalised populations alongside institutional texts to understand informants work and how it sits within the larger system of health research. I theorise that the marketisation of the university and health system within a neoliberal knowledge economy, along with an emphasis on the biomedical, direct research practices in ways counter-intuitive and counter-productive to those working with marginalised groups. Not only that but these research systems create what Miranda Fricker calls an ‘epistemic injustice’ by their privileging of certain kinds of research work over others. Moving from the empirical, the thread of epistemic injustice is then taken up and elaborated. Epistemologies in health research– their foundations, the information they provide, and their limitations are laid out. I argue that the privileging of one kind of knowing is in part based on our established theory of justice narrowing our perspective (especially within a neoliberal environment). Then, I put forward the claim that a shift in justice theory to a Capabilities Approach (CA) that reframes the questions that we need to address and therefore the methods needed to address them, might be more effective in acknowledging health inequity and creating a fairer health research environment. Sen’s CA takes as its foundation the equalising of people’s capabilities to achieve their preferred functionings, recognising the diversity of these functionings and does this on the basis of public discourse and decision-making. This approach to justice in health research requires a more inclusive and patient-centered framework than the current model which in practice is often disease-centric and generalising. I argue a CA framework is likely to not only change the informational environment required to make decisions but liable to improve inequity because it more explicitly asks us to notice it.

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  • The languages of relevant logic: a model-theoretic perspective

    Badia Hernandez, Guillermo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A traditional aspect of model theory has been the interplay between formal languages and mathematical structures (hence Chang and Keisler's famous equation "model theory = universal algebra + logic"). This dissertation is concerned, in particular, with the relationship between the languages of relevant logic and Routley-Meyer models. One fundamental question is treated: what is the expressive power of relevant languages in the Routley-Meyer framework? In the case of finitary relevant propositional languages, two answers are provided. The first is that finitary propositional relevant languages are the fragments of first order logic preserved under relevant directed bisimulations. The second is that, when we restrict our attention to what can be labelled as De Morgan models, we can obtain an analogue of Lindström's theorem for finitary propositional relevant languages. Furthermore, it is shown that a preservation theorem characterizing the expressive power of infinitary relevant languages in classical infinitary languages follows as a consequence of an interpolation theorem for classical infinitary logic. In addition, algebraic characterizations of the classes of Routley-Meyer models axiomatizable in relevant propositional languages, incompactness of infinitary relevant propositional languages and the expressive power of quantificational relevant languages are discussed. A final chapter is devoted to the study of relevant languages as second order frame languages. In particular we devote our attention to the problem of which properties expressible by relevant languages are elementary and which are not. An algebraic characterization of such elementary properties together with some examples of non first order properties axiomatizable in relevant logic are given. Finally, a Sahlqvist-van Benthem algorithm showing that relevant formulas with a certain syntactic form express calculable first order properties at the level of frames is established.

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  • Are we ready yet?: New graduate nurses' experience of workplace violence and agression and their sense of readiness

    Ball, Christine (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Aim: The aim of this study was explore new graduate nurses’ experience of WPVA and their sense of readiness for responding to such events. Background: Considerable evidence exists indicating that workplace violence and aggression (WPVA) is a concern for nurses working in all sectors of health. The impact of exposure can be far reaching for nurses themselves, those they care for and for organisations that employ them. There is a need to prepare nurses adequately to enable them to respond safely and competently to WPVA. Method: This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to explore the experience of seven new graduate nurses who were employed in a range of sectors, including Mental Health and General Medical units. Data was collected using semi structured interviews which were recorded and transcribed by the researcher. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data which generated three themes and associated subthemes. Findings: The themes identified were labelled ‘Part of the Journey’, ‘Towards Self Efficacy’ and ‘Maintaining Integrity’. The themes reflect the diversity of experiences and challenges these nurses faced when exposed to WPVA. ‘Part of the Journey’ captured the nature of the experience including physical and verbal assaults, and exposure to horizontal violence. Factors that influenced this experience and how participants made sense of them were identified. ‘Towards Self-Efficacy’ captured the effects of exposure which were mostly negative and psychological. These included lowered self esteem and confidence, fear and reduced engagement with clients. Only minor physical injuries were sustained. However, positive effects that contributed to the nurse’s self-efficacy, such as increased risk awareness, and improved understanding of client centered care and duty of care were also identified. ‘Maintaining Integrity’ captured the vulnerability participants felt with several aspects of WPVA. Vulnerability was associated with trying to ‘fit in’ with colleagues by not complaining and attempting to deal with WPVA as competently as more experienced staff. However, the new graduates also identified coping strategies used to maintain integrity and counteract the vulnerability they experienced. They described entering into processes of reconciliation with clients or staff involved, reflective practices and supervision and seeking the support of others. Conclusion: While a large body of literature on WPVA in the health sector exists, less of it focuses specifically on new graduate nurses’ experience and their readiness for responding to it. This study provides insight from nurses who are at the most vulnerable stage of their career and includes suggestions on how they could be better prepared. In addition it contributes to the understanding of WPVA by providing a contemporary, New Zealand perspective.

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  • Opportunity and Uncertainty: Supervisors, examiners and graduates describe the Critical/Creative Nexus in practice in the Creative Writing PhD at the International Institute of Modern Letters (University of Victoria, Wellington, New Zealand)

    Jenner, Lynn (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In December 2014 I held six exploratory interviews with participants in the PhD programme at the International Institute of Modern Letters (IIML), Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand to explore the relationships between the critical and creative components of the PhD as understood by these particular individuals. The interviews show a range of opinions regarding the purpose of the critical component, its form, the assessment of the critical and creative components and the degree structure.My aim for this research was to create a feedback loop of information about the critical/creative nexus from people who are members of the IIML community of practice. I hoped also to collect and share practical ideas from graduates, supervisors and examiners on how to work through or with the tensions surrounding the critical/creative nexus. In line with that, the purpose of this report is to make the whole content of the six interviews available so that readers can investigate issues which might be of particular interest to them.

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  • An investigation into the barriers and facilitators to acceptance, and use of Bay Navigator Pathways by general practitioners in the Western Bay of Plenty

    Reyneke, Anel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Objectives This project aims to explore reasons for variable uptake of the Bay Navigator Pathways among General Practitioners in the Western Bay of Plenty Primary Healthcare Organisation (PHO). The project aims were to identify barriers and facilitators in the use of the Bay Navigator Pathways and develop recommendations for improving the utility of Bay Navigator Pathways by general practitioner users. Study design General practitioners (GP) were purposively sampled to include specific pre-determined criteria in order to cover a range of GP characteristics. GPs were interviewed using semi-structured qualitative interviews. Data saturation was reached after fifteen interviews. Interviews were transcribed in full. A thematic analysis was undertaken, informed by the Diffusion of Innovation Framework (an analytic model used in quality improvement research). Results An understanding of the barriers and facilitators that influenced the acceptance and use of the local general practice population was achieved. Unmet and unrealistic expectations from the onset of the Bay Navigator Initiative were identified. Low centrality of the Bay Navigator Pathways hindered the use and acceptance of the Bay Navigator Pathways. Initial and ongoing issues with technology and incompatibility of the different practice management systems were identified as a universal issue between interviewees. However, the trial period for the Bay Navigator Pathways still has a window for opportunity to improve acceptance and use. Lessons learned through this research should be taken into account to assist ongoing development of the Bay Navigator Pathways. Conclusion The research showed that general practitioners must exercise an expansive clinical and patient management skill set within the current health system. Adequate support through ongoing education and development of skill should be high on the agenda for Health Workforce New Zealand. General practitioners should have the ability to triage, investigate, treat and support patients in an effective, cost-effective way. Patients that need secondary care input should have a smooth transit from primary into secondary and again smooth transit of care back into primary with clear treatment plans and goals acceptable to the patient and their whanau. The New Zealand health system should be an entity that people can trust and rely on in time of need. Innovations like the Bay Navigator Pathways can be valuable tools to achieve these goals. There are no infallible rules when developing and implementing health care initiatives. Knowledge about the specific locally appreciated barriers and facilitators can inform healthcare developments in future.  

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  • Consumer Culture in China: Consumption Face

    Xia, Zhenhua (Raymond) (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    “Face” in China is one of the country’s most traditional social and cultural factors. Generally, “Face” in Chinese social life represents the image of a person’s social self (through the thesis I will use Face with a capitalised F to represent this specific concept). Many studies have indicated that in China Face influences consumption, and specifically, relates it to conspicuous consumption (Bao, Zhou, & Su, 2003; J. J. Li & Su, 2007; Monkhouse, Bradley R, & Stephan, 2012; N. Wong, Y. & Ahuvia, 1998). However, Chinese Face is a very general concept. This thesis specifically classifies which type of Chinese Face particularly influences consumption among other types: moral Face (Lien), social Face (Mien-tzu), renqing Face and interaction Face. These are types of Face that are referred to in existing studies and research. I name the type of Face that relates to consumption, “Consumption Face”. The aim of my study is to clarify the influence and role of Consumption Face on Chinese consumption patterns, the mechanism by which these patterns take place, and also consider how they will develop in future. I review the geopolitical nature of China as well as Chinese culture from ideology to values and norms, and in particular, the socio-political changes that occurred after the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China as background regarding the formation of Face and the place of consumption in current Chinese life. The recent rapid development of consumption in China and social needs in modern China increase the importance of identifying and conceptualising Consumption Face. This is from the basis that Chinese tend to strive for self-actualisation by using consumption to signal their social status and wealth. To do this on the basis of a broad literature review, this thesis aims to define Consumption Face and to develop a three-dimensional construct of it as a foundation for further analysis. Following the trend of globalisation and commercialisation after the late-1970s when China opened its economy, Chinese people were considered, or hypothesised by Western scholars and others, to be more Westernised. Young Chinese especially are now considered to be more individualistic, and thus less influenced by Face than was the situation in the former traditional collectivistic Chinese society. To study the influence of Consumption Face on consumption now and in the future, I conducted a series of studies to answer two questions: 1. To what extent does Consumption Face influence purchase decisions between different categories of products and brands? 2. To what extent does the influence of Consumption Face on purchase decisions differ between young consumers and preceding generations? To do this, I developed a Consumption Face Influence (CFI) measurement. I used this measurement construct to test different age cohorts for their consumption behaviour in regard to the purchase of luxuries and necessities. This test crossed the contexts of public consumption and private consumption. The test was also applied to measure CFI across the contexts of product categories and brands. The findings do not support the hypothesis that young Chinese consumers are less influenced by Consumption Face than their parents and older generations. CFI was even stronger for young Chinese than for their preceding generation for luxury consumption. The results also reveal that the dominant motivation for Chinese conspicuous consumption is not conspicuousness, but instead conformity. Simply using theories formulated by Western scholars to understand Chinese consumer behaviour may be misleading. Consequently, from a practical perspective, trading with China, doing business with Chinese, and undertaking marketing targeted at China, could and should engage and apply knowledge of Chinese consumption behaviour and understand behaviour related to Face. This thesis contributes to marketing literature by identifying and conceptualising a new type of social influence toward consumption patterns which is becoming vital in China but which tends to be overlooked due to its implicit attribute. My research verifies that Consumption Face exists and profoundly influences the purchasing behaviour of young modern Chinese. It also contributes to the Face research field by classifying different types of Face for future relevant research to help specify their research scope, and by adding one more conceptualisation to the theory: Consumption Face. The conceptualisation of Consumption Face provides a new tool to investigate and analyse Chinese marketing phenomena, both as applied by them and applied to them, within substantial and sound interpretive dimensions. The tool could complement relevant research that applies Western developed concepts. This thesis suggests a developed measurement set of CFI that can help further research in the future; not only the research of Chinese in China, but also research applying to Chinese immigrants in overseas countries as well as to cross-cultural studies applied to other ethnicities.

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