316,899 results

  • Worm on the Run – A versatile force-sensing platform for the study of freely moving nematodes

    Nock, V.; Alkaisi, M.M.; Wang, W.; Johari, S. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Model-specific tests on variance heterogeneity for detection of potentially interacting genetic loci

    Hothorn, L.A.; Libiger, O.; Gerhard, D. (2012)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Trait variances among genotype groups at a locus are expected to differ in the presence of an interaction between this locus and another locus or environment. A simple maximum test on variance heterogeneity can thus be used to identify potentially interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results: We propose a multiple contrast test for variance heterogeneity that compares the mean of Levene residuals for each genotype group with their average as an alternative to a global Levene test. We applied this test to a Bogalusa Heart Study dataset to screen for potentially interacting SNPs across the whole genome that influence a number of quantitative traits. A user-friendly implementation of this method is available in the R statistical software package multcomp. Conclusions: We show that the proposed multiple contrast test of model-specific variance heterogeneity can be used to test for potential interactions between SNPs and unknown alleles, loci or covariates and provide valuable additional information compared with traditional tests. Although the test is statistically valid for severely unbalanced designs, care is needed in interpreting the results at loci with low allele frequencies.

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  • Exploring the engagement of New Zealand diagnostic radiographers with research

    Haven, Jennifer (2013)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Research question: To what extent are New Zealand diagnostic radiographers engaged with research and why?

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  • Building natural disaster response capacity: sound workforce strategies for recovery and reconstruction in APEC economies

    Chang-Richards, A. Y.; Seville, E.; Wilkinson, S.; Walker, B. (2013)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report examines and compares case studies of labour market policy responses in APEC economies to natural disasters. It first reviews the policies and practice within APEC economies and internationally in managing the labour market effects of natural disasters. By using comparative case studies, the report then compares recent disaster events in the Asia-Pacific region, including: - the June 2013 Southern Alberta floods in Canada; - the 2010 and 2011 Queensland floods in Australia; - the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand; - the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan; and - the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

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  • The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955-58 - How the crossing of Antarctica moved New Zealand to recognise its Antarctic heritage and take an equal place among Antarctic nations

    Hicks, Stephen Walter (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The thesis analyses the expedition (TAE) led by Dr.Vivian Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary from three vantage points: 1)the years from 1948 to 1955 leading up to the expedition 2) the interaction between the IGY and the TAE projects and 3) the role of the US Navy as the expedition unfolded. The thesis also investigates key events including the purchase of the ship Endeavour from Britain, the competition for leadership of the UK and NZ parties, the 'dash to the Pole' by Hillary, and the search for base sites and routes to the Polar Plateau. The thesis contains an overview historical introduction, a comprehensive literature review as well as a broad-based set of conclusions.

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  • Pocket beach wave processes and current systems investigated via field and numerical modelling studies: A case study of Okains Bay

    Eisazadeh Moghaddam, Arash (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Confined coasts in general, and pocket beach environments in particular, are under huge development pressures worldwide, not least due to their sheltered nature and perceived shoreline stability. However, understanding of their physical functioning is poor in comparison to that of open coast beaches. This study aims to improve understanding in terms of the existing gaps in knowledge of wave processes and nearshore currents, and also to examine the importance of local wind and tide factors in generating nearshore currents, in micro-tidal pocket beaches. The boundaries of embayments are generally recognized as important controls of their beach processes and responses, yet little detailed knowledge exists of how the exact embayment dimensions and characteristics influences these processes. One key embayment feature the influence of which is poorly understood is the downcoast headland. In this thesis, field observations plus Zanuttigh and Van der Meer’s (2008) approach, and the SWAN wave model were used to evaluate the downcoast headland effects on wave processes within Okains Bay, an example pocket beach environment. The results showed that incident wave heights and directions were significantly influenced by wave reflection processes from the downcoast headland inside the bay. The intensity of reflection effects on wave characteristics inside the pocket beach varied according to approaching wave direction. Reflection effects reduced when waves approached from angles close to parallel to the headlands, increasing towards headland-perpendicular wave approaches. Field observations and the XBeach model were used to examine whether or not tides can significantly influence nearshore currents within example and model pocket beach environments. Results indicated that tides can be the primary driver of nearshore currents close to the bed inside micro-tidal pocket beaches, depending on incident wave conditions. In areas of micro-tidal pocket beaches exposed to direct approaching waves, currents were wave driven, while in areas further into the bay that experienced headland filtering of their wave environment, currents were mainly tide generated. The results of this study demonstrated how the current circulation system within micro-tidal pocket beaches is related to the incoming directions of offshore waves. If high energy waves approach oblique or normal to the shoreline (with the assumption that the shoreline is at 90° to the headlands), the current system was found to consist of longshore currents influenced by headlands, plus a rip current in the center of the shoreline or a toporip in proximity to headlands. The location of the rip current or toporip was determined by the direction of approaching incident waves. This study also examined the behavior of local winds in a pocket beach environment and their consequent effects on nearshore currents. Results for Okains Bay show that local winds tended to blow in offshore and onshore directions, as the bay is located in a valley, so orographic effects channel and shift the wind directions to angles close to offshore and onshore directions inside the bay. Results also indicated that local winds influence the hydrodynamic currents of pocket beaches that are confined by elevated topography, producing semi-cross shore influences since the winds are topographically channelled to blow in predominantly offshore and onshore directions. This research significantly refines our understanding of micro-tidal pocket beach wave and current processes, including quantification of the filtering effects of headlands on their wave environments, revealing the various and variable influences of tides and winds compared to in open coast beaches; and, significantly, highlighting the role of downcoast headland wave reflection effects. With regard to the latter, this research elucidates some key process differences between pocket and embayed beaches and clarifies reasons why the application of embayed beach models that include refraction and diffraction but exclude reflection effects to the study of pocket beaches is inappropriate for studying pocket beaches. This research also provides methodological and topic suggestions for future research on pocket beach environments, including how to use the improved hydrodynamic knowledge of this study in future studies seeking to better understand pocket beach sediment systems, a topic that was beyond the scope of the current research.

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  • 'The Inside View' Investigating the use of Narrative Assessment to Support Student Identity, Wellbeing, and Participation in Learning in a New Zealand secondary school.

    Guerin, Annette Patricia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand education policies and documents (Ministry of Education, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011a, 2014a) situate students at the centre of assessment processes that are underpinned by the New Zealand Curriculum. They identify building student assessment capability as crucial to achieving improvement in learning. Documents recognize the impact of quality interactions and relationships on effective assessment. However these core beliefs about assessment are not observed to guide teaching practices for all students. Disabled students remain invisible in assessment data and practices within New Zealand secondary schools. There appears to be little or no assessment data about learning outcomes for this group of students. This thesis investigates possible ways to recognize the diversity of student capability and learning through the use of narrative assessment. It challenges the absence of disabled students in assessment landscapes as educator roles and responsibilities within assessment, teaching and learning are framed within an inclusive pedagogy. This research project focuses on how a team of adults and two students labeled as disabled make sense of assessment and learning within the context of narrative assessment in the students’ regular high school. The project examines the consequences of narrative assessment on student identity, wellbeing and participation within learning. The study offers opportunities to observe how specialists from outside of the school respond to the use of narrative as they work with the two student research participants. This study undertakes a critical inquiry that recognises the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – partnership, protection and participation – as pivotal to inclusive practice where all students are valued as learners. It investigates how narrative assessment can honour these principles in everyday teaching practice. The project aims to inform education policy and practice, with a view to enriching learning outcomes and opportunities for disabled students who are frequently marginalized by inequitable assessment processes. It is argued that narrative assessment can support the construction of student identity and wellbeing. It can support the recognition of disabled students as partners in their learning. However the value of narrative assessment can be undermined by the responses of educators and other professionals who continue to work within deficit models of assessment, teaching and learning. Within this thesis adult participants from family and education contexts have clear ideas about the value and validity of assessment practices and processes that do not respect a presumption of competence or a need to establish a relationship with a student being assessed. Their views challenge everyday practices that fulfill assessment contracts, but ignore Treaty of Waitangi and New Zealand Curriculum commitments. Their views can inform better ways of working between specialists and schools supporting disabled students.

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  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • The failure of corporate failure models to classify and predict : aspects and refinements

    Alexander, P. B. (1991)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about the use of multiple discriminant analysis in corporate distress classification and forecasting. Classification and prediction models are notoriously difficult to establish in such a way that they will stand the ultimate test of time. Many articles severely criticise the use of the technique yet there are aspects which may improve our ability to develop satisfactory models. We are probably yet a long way off from being able to do so with any great degree of satisfaction, yet it behoves us to try to develop models that do justice to the assumptions and the theory. This thesis explores several important aspects of the model-building process and concludes that some of the more conventional criticisms of the models developed so far are less important than claimed. It suggests that more critical than the failure to meet the conditions of multivariate normality, the equality of the variance-covariance matrices, and the use of a priori probabilities are the need for: a satisfactory model specification that can be theoretically justified, the strict use of random sampling, the efficient use of sample data, the search for stable mean vectors which are significantly different from each other, and ex ante validation. If these requirements are met then the MDA technique is robust enough to cope with breaches of the assumptions.

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  • Optical probes of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics

    Barker, Alexander J. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show considerable promise as a source of low cost solar energy. Improving our understanding of the processes governing free charge photogeneration in OPVs may unlock the improvements in efficiency required for their widespread implementation. In particular, how do photogenerated charge pairs overcome their mutual columbic attraction, and what governs the branching between bound and free charge pairs that is observed to occur shortly after their creation? Ultrafast laser techniques such as transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are the only tools capable of probing the time scales associated with these processes (as short as 10⁻¹⁴ seconds). Challenges include achieving sufficient sensitivity to resolve the tiny signals generated in thin films under solar-equivalent excitation densities, and distinguishing and quantifying overlapping signals due to separate phenomena. We present the development of a versatile and ultra-sensitive broadband TA spectrometer, along with a comprehensive analysis of the noise sources limiting sensitivity. Through the use of referenced shot-to-shot detection and a novel method exploiting highly chirped broadband probe pulses, we are capable of resolving changes in differential transmission < 3 × 10⁻⁶ over pump-probe delays of 10⁻¹³–10⁻⁴ seconds. By comparing the absorption due to photogenerated charges to measurements of open-circuit voltage decay in devices under transient excitation, we show that TA is able to quantify the recombination of freely extractable charge pairs over many decades of pump-probe delay. The dependence of this recombination on excitation density can reveal the relative fraction of bound and free charge pairs. We apply this technique to blends of varying efficiency and find that the measured free charge fraction is correlated with published photocharge yields for these materials. We access a regime at low temperature where thermalized charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The dependence of tunneling rate on distance enabled us to fit recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates. We identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs, the yield of which is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity dependent recombination. We conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization timescale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we find critical charge separation distances of ~ 3–4nm in all materials. TA spectroscopy probes the absorption of excited states, with the signal being proportional to the product of population density and absorption cross-section of the absorbing species. We show that the dependence of signal on probe pulse intensity can decouple these parameters, and apply a numerical model to determine the time-dependent absorption cross-section of photogenerated excitons in thin films of semiconducting polymers. Collectively, this thesis presents spectroscopic tools and applications thereof that illuminate the process of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics.

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  • Spiritual vegetarianism: identity in everyday life of Thai non-traditional religious cult members

    Makboon, Boonyalakha

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis examines how the participants who are Thai and vegetarians integrate vegetarianism into their lives, and how they produce and maintain their vegetarian identity element. This video-ethnographic study was conducted in Thailand over the course of five months, with particular attention to three participants who are members of non-traditional religious cults in Thailand, where vegetarianism is a normal practice. Utilizing multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011a), I conducted a micro analysis by teasing apart the participants’ real-time interactions, investigating how different modes come to play together to make certain actions possible. The analysis also incorporates other data from observational notes, sociolinguistic interviews and photographs. I discovered that the participants produced a spiritual vegetarian identity element in accordance with their religious belief. The participants produced multiple identity elements, including but not limited to their spiritual vegetarian identity element, at differentiated levels of the participants’ attention/awareness. At the time of the study, my participants did not continuously produce their spiritual vegetarian identity element, and thus a spiritual vegetarian identity was not their most salient identity element. However, I found that vegetarianism plays a significant role in the participants’ lives as they always produced their spiritual vegetarian identity element in connection with other identity elements. This results from the fact that these identity elements were developed within a religious context which was embedded in the historical body (Nishida, 1985) of the participants. Religion has exerted a substantial influence on many aspects of their lives and their resulting identity elements.

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  • The survival of things

    Coveny, Eloise Jayne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    How might a sonic archiving installation practice produce conditions of history other to orthodox narratives of time? What might a Benjaminian “destructive character” today make of analogue and digital archives for producing uncanny encounters within chips of messianic time? The above dialectical image maps out my research site. At my crossroads stands History proper and historical ambiguity—spoken as ‘I’, my site inscribes difference in archiving things from Victoriana inspired moments, filtered through a girl from Auckland, New Zealand circa 1980s and 1990s (culminating most poignantly in 1994). My installation practice evokes particularly voices materialised through sonic forces aided through photographic, filmic, and recording apparatuses and their representational modalities. These sonic forces material my artistic research practice as a historic figure existing within me as an artist-researcher figuring out (my) different narratives. I employ myself here as a type of destructive (Benjaminian) figure, making radical sonic interventions as historic otherness appear to me to bring to ‘light’ Walter Benjamin’s conceptual historic materialism of time as: the true picture of the past; time at a standstill; moment of danger; ambiguity; dialectical image that is pregnant with tensions; uncanny limits to ourselves. I unpack these radical expressions of time and history—that are marked out above in my dialectical image; my site of research—through the following exegesis. I figure my practice (my self) dangerously between the dominance of orthodox archiving narratives to specify an acute ‘familiar’ moment—say 1994 (1994: Time-space encounters between digital forces and analogue ghosts). I read my project as the dialectical image above and hope that one can better understand this site increasingly throughout the reading of this exegesis. This understanding of time at a [dialectical] standstill is taken from the philosopher Walter Benjamin. This time of arrest is counter to linear time that is often posed as the dominant voice throughout historicism [discourses] (i.e. writing history) that marginalises other voices and other experiences. My practice works within this site of investigation to privilege lost voices that explore a longing for historic authenticity—where the location of authenticity lies in its alterity, in what is distant to the present time and space. Benjamin practices [destructive] lyrical configuration through the modern allegory, which I here explore through my practice in the form of anachronistic spatial configuration (installation) as a method for [sonic] archiving. The anachronistic structuring of my installation tests activate dialectical tensions that speak to us of the hidden voices repressed by the orthodox structure of things; through juxtaposing and rupturing orthodox histories via my relations to things in the world. This has become in part an autobiographical tenor that lyrically composes my exegesis and installation as a methodology. It does this bearing in mind the viewer’s independence, where my own autos is largely heterogeneously fractured into the archival installation final exhibition aiming for uncanny registers that can only be designed by the ‘hand’ of weak messianic power (Benjamin). My sonic forces mapping out the research aims of this installation archiving practice are inspired primarily by the work of Walter Benjamin's concept of Messianic time in relation to historical materialism. My artistic research has focused in on relations of voices through time; voices that have spoken to me throughout (auto)biographical encounters with artefacts; things that continue to return and inhabit me more so than I realise. These things are speaking to me now, here; at a crux moment of a self-splitting between some fantasy autos of my biography, and yet they are shot through with the voices of those philosophers I am engaging and their autos. In this sense, my artistic material and precedence gather around the literary, poetic, and mystical voices of others (people, antiques, commodities, spaces, places, photographs, films and other textual forms of archival material). The images that make up my work emerge from the imagination, now brought to the fore through these textual methodological encounters that inspire my way through. In this sense, my practice appears on the surface to be voiding the proper of art historical practitioner precedence, and yet in this way I have followed an authentic (unorthodox) path that is akin to the destructive character Benjamin evokes. The images of others sit below this surface only to rise uncannily in the strange present that this time evokes. The concept of the uncanny, guided by voices of Martin Heidegger, Sigmund Freud and Walter Benjamin, open up my mystical moments for installing such an encounter of strange time as a survival of things.

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  • Performance analysis of fielding and wicket-keeping in cricket to inform strength and conditioning practice

    MacDonald, Danielle Catherine

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this thesis was to contribute to the scientific understanding of the performance demands of One Day International (ODI) fielding and wicket-keeping, and to provide recommendations for improving athlete performance, assessment and coach education. Two comprehensive literature reviews of the physical, technical, physiological and tactical components of fielding and wicket-keeping were conducted. Given the gaps identified in the literature reviews, an online mixed method survey of cricket players, coaches and trainers was designed to investigate the performance requirements of the wicket-keeper, close, inner and outer circle fielders. Players and coaches rated agility the most important physical attribute for the wicket-keeper (4.7/5), close fielders (4.6/5), and inner circle fielders (4.8/5). Speed (4.8/5) and agility (4.6/5) were rated most important for outer circle fielders. Coaches raised the issue of the lack of a cricket specific agility test. An emerging theme for all categories was the importance of the mental aspects of the game such as positive attitude and concentration, particularly for the wicket-keeper. To validate the use of video footage for performance analysis a comparison was made between televised and purposefully collected video for event coding. The variables of interest were derived from the literature reviews and corroborated by the survey. The ICC for intra-coder reliability for all but two variables was between 0.88 and 1.00 the exceptions were lateral footwork (step 0.83 and shuffle 0.55) likely due to the subjectivity of defining footwork patterns. The televised footage under-reported the frequency of wicket-keeping activity (≈4.5%), except for lateral footwork, which was under-reported by the purposefully collected video (≈13.5%) due to the movement being perpendicular to the camera view. Even though fielding activity was under-reported (≈4.25) by televised footage, this footage was deemed to be most appropriate, as the collected footage resulted in a field of view that made the finer details of fielding difficult to distinguish. Performance analysis studies on fielding and wicket-keeping were carried out using televised footage from the 2011 ODI World Cup. The majority of the wicket-keepers movements were lateral (75%); primarily repetitive low intensity movements interspersed with explosive movements such as diving and jumping. Wicket-keeping glove-work skills (69%) were the most performed skill activity, the quality of which was quantified using a catching efficiency measure (93%). Close, inner and outer circle fielders had variable involvement in fielding activities. Close fielders were involved in 20% of the fielding activity, the bowler the most (58%) involved. The inner circle fielders were involved in 50% of fielding contacts; of whom cover was the position most involved (21%) Inner circle fielders had to display the greatest range of skills within the field, such as catching from different heights, varied throwing and ground fielding techniques. Outer circle fielders were involved with 30% of the fielding contacts; the outer circle position most involved was long on (14%). Long sprints were the hallmark of outer circle fielding, following the sprint, they often had to perform explosive movements such as a dive or a jump to field the ball; they rarely had the opportunity to stop and position themselves to perform their skill. Additionally, catching (75%,89%, 85%) throwing (0%,12%, 33%) and overall fielding performance (89%,98%,99% ) were quantified using efficiency calculations for close, inner and outer circle fielders respectively. The findings of the literature reviews and studies expanded upon the only previous study to quantify fielding performance, and informed the development of performance profiles of fielding and wicket-keeping. Subsequently recommendations for assessment, training and coaching have been made, which will be integrated into New Zealand Cricket resources. Most notable are suggestions for improving the existing skill and physical testing batteries

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  • Learning about a Moving Target in Resource Management: Optimal Bayesian Disease Control

    MacLachlan, Matthew J.; Springborn, Michael R.; Fackler, Paul L. (26-Jul-2015)

    Presentation
    AgEcon Search

    Resource managers must often make difficult choices in the face of imperfectly observed and dynamically changing systems (e.g. livestock, fisheries, water and invasive species). A rich set of techniques exists for identifying optimal choices under such uncertainty, though that uncertainty is typically, and unrealistically, assumed to be understood and irreducible. The adaptive management literature overcomes this limitation with tools for optimal learning, however rich descriptions of system dynamics are ironed out for tractability, e.g. the model component that is targeted for learning is not allowed to vary. We overcome this trade-off through a novel extension of the existing Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework, to allow for learning about a dynamically changing and continuous state. We illustrate this methodology by exploring optimal control of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand's cattle. Disease testing---the control variable---serves to identify herds for treatment and provide information on prevalence, which is both imperfectly observed and subject to change due to controllable and uncontrollable factors. We find substantial efficiency losses from both ignoring learning (standard stochastic optimization) and from simplifying system dynamics (standard adaptive management), though the latter effect dominates. We also find that under an adaptive management approach, simplifying dynamics can lead to a belief trap in which information gathering ceases, beliefs become increasingly inaccurate and losses abound.

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  • Implied Discount Rates in the Gulf of Mexico Commercial Red Snapper IFQ Program

    Ropicki, Andrew; Larkin, Sherry (2015)

    Presentation
    AgEcon Search

    Catch shares fishery management schemes, including individual fishing quota (IFQ) programs, have become a popular tool for fishery managers trying to stop overfishing. IFQ, in theory, provides quota owners with the “right” to a share of both the current catch and all future harvests. By making quota a perpetual asset it is in the fishermen’s best interest to protect future harvests by not overharvesting in the current period. Overharvesting now will decrease future landings and the value of quota going forward. In most IFQ programs quota is tradable; and many IFQ programs allow for not only the sale of quota (the perpetual asset) but also the leasing of quota during a given year (the lessee attains the right to harvest the quota this year but the lessor retains the right for all subsequent years).
    In a number of IFQ fisheries leasing is the predominate form of quota trading. During the first five years of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper IFQ program (2007-2011) there were 16 times more quota lease than sale trades and the amount of quota pounds traded through leasing was 12 times the amount of pounds traded through sales. Newell, Sanchirico, and Kerr (2005) found that quota lease transactions increased 10-fold in New Zealand IFQ fisheries from approximately 1,500 in 1986 to about 15,000 in 2000 representing approximately 45% of the total allowable catch (TAC), while sales of quota only accounted for about 5% of the TAC. Quota leasing in the British Columbia halibut IFQ program rose steadily from program implementation in 1993 to reach 79% of the TAC in 2006 (Pinkerton and Edwards 2009). The Tasmanian rock lobster IFQ program saw similar large amounts of quota leasing with 44% of the TAC leased in 2007 the ninth full year of the program, during the same year only 3% of the TAC was sold (van Putten et al. 2010).
    The predominance of leasing as the major form of quota exchange in these IFQ programs has been accompanied by the growth of two distinct types of quota fishery participants: investors and lease-dependent fishers. Investors are quota owners that do not fish and simply hold quota as an investment that pays dividends through lease payments. Lease dependent fishers are those fishers that do not own quota and lease in their entire quota. During the first five years of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper IFQ program the percentage of red snapper landings caught by lease dependent fishers increased from 9% to 26% while the share of quota owned by investors increased from 13% to 27%. The preponderance of quota leasing in these markets leads to the question: do potential buyers and sellers of quota have inherently different valuations of quota that preclude trading in the quota sale market?
    The implementation of a catch shares management program that allows for both the sale and lease of quota provides an opportunity to analyze discount rates in the fishery. In an IFQ fishery each fishing firm has an incentive to buy, sell, or lease quota until it attains just enough quota to cover a level of catch that maximizes its profits. The value of quota is the discounted value of all future cash flows provided by the quota or the resource rent earned from harvesting the quota. The quota lease price should equal the profit from harvesting that fish. If we assume fishing firm i has the generic profit function shown in equation 1 where p is the exogenously determined dockside price of fish, qi is the amount of fish landed, and c(qi) is a function representing firm i’s cost of catching qi fish; then maximizing profits with respect to landings, subject to the constraint that firm i holds enough quota to cover qi level of catch, the firm will be willing to pay λi to lease quota as shown in equation 2.
    πi=pqi- c(qi) (1) λi=p- c'(qi) (2)
    The expected present value of quota for firm i then is the expected future values of leasing that quota discounted back at an appropriate discount rate, r, as shown in equation 3.
    E(V_(i,0))= ∑_(t=0)^∞▒λ_(i,t)/〖(1+r_i)〗^t (3)
    This research inspects the link between IFQ lease and sale prices using survey data and examines the variation in implied discount rates between different groups of quota market participants, namely potential quota buyers and potential quota sellers. Respondents were classified as either potential quota buyers or potential quota sellers based on past trading activity (those that historically leased in quota were classified as potential buyers while those who usually leased out quota were classified as potential sellers). Using survey data from the Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper and Grouper-Tilefish IFQ program participants we were able to examine participants implied discount rates using a dividend discount valuation model. IFQ participants were surveyed to determine at what prices they would buy and sell quota and lease in and out quota, their expectations about future growth of the quota, and their expectations regarding the longevity of IFQ management in the fishery. By accounting for participant expectations regarding the growth of the quota and the future of IFQ management in the fishery we are able to not only measure fundamental differences in respondents’ expectations regarding the future of the fishery, but also control for differences in quota valuation due to factors other than the implied discount rate.

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  • An investigation of the measurement accuracy and productivity of a Waratah HTH 625c Processor Head

    Saathof, David (2014)

    Bachelors thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Log processor heads have become increasingly used in New Zealand (NZ) forest harvesting operations to increase productivity and improve worker safety. Information regarding the measurement accuracy and productivity of new model processor heads is limited. As a result, log quality control (QC) is carried out on logs that have been merchandised by a processor head. This task can have a high risk for injury from man – machine interaction. A trend between studies was that older model Waratah’s did not have sufficient measurement accuracy to alleviate the requirement for log QC. In this study, a Waratah HTH 625c processor head operating in NZ was analysed for measurement accuracy and productivity. Measurement accuracy was considered by measuring logs for length, diameter and branch size. A comparison of two methods of processing was also considered to determine measurement accuracy, productivity and production efficiency for the way logs are delimbed and merchandised. Once gathered, the data was then analysed to identify significant effects, trends and relationships between variables. Length measurements were highly accurate but diameter measurements were under- estimated. It was also evident that although there was absolute accuracy, there was a high variability in measurements with underestimating and overestimating. Branch size was also found to have a significant impact in reducing length measurement accuracy and productivity. Single pass processing has significantly higher production efficiency than two pass processing, although single pass processing had a higher length error associated with it. The Waratah HTH 625c processor head has better measurement accuracy than older model Waratah’s. However, logs are still cut out-of-spec which will require a log QC to identify. As measurement technology is further improved in processor heads, and improvements to NZ’s plantation resource (improved form and smaller branching) are realised at harvest age, measurement accuracy and productivity of log processor heads will further improve.

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  • Mao's cult as an alternative modernity in China.

    Yu, Li (Lydia) (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As a consequence of the pervasiveness of traditional culture, Mao’s cult originated from the absolutely anti-religious environment during the early period of modern China. As a response to the modernization in today’s China, Mao’s cult has became a new tradition and evolved into a modern mode of Chinese popular religion, as well as non-religious patriotism, the legitimacy of the CCP, and Chinese national cohesion. That is to say, the tradition itself was created in the context of modernity, and both tradition and modernity possess only a kind of relative connotation. Therefore, the revival of Mao’s cult in today’s China, in the religious form or non-religious form, manifests the traditional Chinese culture persisting in the modern development of China, and thereby constructs a unique Chinese model of modern development --- an alternative modernity in other words. Therefore the western model might not the best choice for non-Western societies. It is impossible for non-western countries to either abandon their traditional culture to develop a whole new modernity, or to develop a homogenous modernity in accordance with western standards. Furthermore, there is no point arguing the superiority of the western model of development, by comparing western modernity with non-western modernity. Alternative modernities will become important phenomena in our developing world.

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  • Te reo o te ākonga me ngā whakapono o te kaiako : Student voice and teachers’ beliefs

    Ellison, Bruce (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The beliefs that teachers have about teaching and learning have an influence on the practices that teachers implement. This is particularly relevant, although not exclusively, to teaching practices that meet the needs of Māori students in our bicultural learning environments of New Zealand. There is a growing amount of research to support the use of student voice data, the benefits of which can be seen at a school level, at the classroom teacher level as well as for the individual students themselves. This research project focused on exploring the impact of students sharing their thoughts and opinions about their learning, (i.e.: student voice data) on influencing teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning. In doing so it explores effective facilitation of this process in a bicultural learning environment. In particular it investigates the potential of a combination of specific tools, notably student focus groups and coaching conversations with teachers to influence teachers’ beliefs. This study took place in two low decile schools in Christchurch. It involved focus groups of Māori and non-Māori primary-aged students, alongside teacher reflective interviews being conducted on repeated visits. Its findings identified approaches for accessing authentic student voice in a bicultural learning environment. The thoughts and opinions shared by Māori students highlighted a focus on their own learning as well as celebrating their culture. Teachers reacted to student voice by making connections to their classroom programmes, and by accepting or dismissing more provocative statements. These reactions by teachers helped emphasize the most helpful methods for reflecting on this data. Their reflections, used alongside a specially designed ‘Teacher Belief Gathering Tool’, ascertained that teachers’ beliefs were both reaffirmed and changed through guided reflection and coaching conversations on student voice data. Teachers’ knowledge of effective teaching and learning, their motivation for changing their teaching practices, as well as witnessing success were all considerable factors in teachers changing their beliefs.

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  • Generation and structural characterisation of transient gaseous species.

    Atkinson, Sandra Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gas electron diffraction (GED) is a technique that has been developed to study the molecular structure of species in the gas phase. This thesis focuses on the reconstruction of the Canterbury GED apparatus (moved from Edinburgh, UK) and the requirements for modifying the apparatus to incorporate a mass spectrometer (MS) so diffraction and MS data can be obtained within a single experiment. The combined GED-MS system has been identified in previous work in the Masters group as a necessary development for studying the structure of short-lived species generated in situ. This is particularly true for the study of ketene, which as shown in this thesis, can be generated from several precursors as part of a multiple product pyrolysis system. While GED data for ketene generated from acetic anhydride has been refined, the species formed from the pyrolysis of Meldrum’s acid were determined to be too difficult to deconvolute without additional experimental data from MS. A computational study of possible ketene derivatives that could be studied with a GED-MS apparatus is also presented. Lastly, this thesis details a structural study of the gas-phase structures of tris(chloromethyl)amine and a family of substituted disilane systems which have been determined in the gas phase for the first time. A comprehensive GED, Raman spectroscopy and ab initio study have been undertaken for tris(chloromethyl)amine [N(CH2Cl)3] which is shown to have a different structure in the solid and gas phase. Further work in the form of a molecular dynamics investigation has been identified as necessary to describe the low amplitude motion of one of the CH2Cl groups in the gas phase to allow for the GED refinement to be completed. The work on the substituted disilane systems X3SiSiXMe2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and X3SiSiMe3 (X = H, F, Cl, Br) demonstrates the effect of increased halogen substitution on the electronic effects of the disilanes, and the effect that the methyl groups have as larger halogens increase the steric bulk of the system.  

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  • Stress : strain relationships for confined concrete : rectangular sections

    Scott, Bryan D. (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An experimental investigation into the behaviour of square, confined, reinforced concrete columns was undertaken. Thirty 450 mm square, 1200 mm high units were cast with varying amounts of longitudinal and lateral steel. These were subjected to concentric or eccentric axial loads to failure at slow or dynamic loading rates. Confinement requirements of reinforced concrete columns are discussed and the results and analyses of experimental work presented. Results include an assessment of the significance of loading rate, eccentricity, amount and distribution of longitudinal steel, and the amount of confining steel. A general stress-strain curve for rectangular concrete sections loaded at seismic rates is proposed and compared with existing curves based on previous static loading tests.

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