285 results

  • Microoxidation in Wine Production

    Kilmartin, Paul (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O2 and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area.

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  • Wine club members' enduring involvement toward winery visitation, wine drinking and wine club participation.

    Christensen, David (2004-06)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Although an interest in, passion for, and fascination with wine has existed for centuries, in some parts of the world, for example New Zealand, this interest, passion and reverence for wine is relatively new. How New Zealanders choose to engage with their newfound wine passion is unclear, as is the importance they place on wine within their lifestyle. A wine lifestyle is emerging as a means of individual's engaging in their fascination with wine. This wine lifestyle exists within New Zealand wine clubs, and comprises wine habits such as wine drinking, wine purchasing, wine cellaring and wine knowledge extension as well as wine club participation and winery visitation. The importance level of these lifestyle components is unknown. Therefore, the primary objective was to ascertain which aspects of this lifestyle have the most importance placed upon them. Decanter Club members participated in an online questionnaire, built in Macromedia's 'Dreamweaver' package, and attached to a Structured Query Language (SQL) database. The final analysis of respondent data was undertaken in SPSS, with Cronbach's Alpha coefficients being used to determine adequate data reliability. The concept of enduring involvement (EI) was used to determine exactly how individuals engage with their interest in wine. Higie and Feick's (1989, p.690) definition of enduring involvement suggests that it is "a stable trait that represents an individual’s degree of interest or arousal for a product on a day-to-day basis; an ongoing, long-term interest". This definition, along with Higie and Feick's (1989) Enduring Involvement Scale (EIS) were adopted as integral components of this research. Higie and Feick's (1989) EIS measures an individual's level of EI through 'hedonic' (pleasure-seeking) and 'self-expression' attributes. These are combined to give an overall level of EI. Three specific components of the wine lifestyle, winery visitation, wine drinking and wine club participation, were chosen as the means of measuring an individual's EI. Wine drinking was found to evoke the highest levels of EI, followed by wine club participation and winery visitation. Wine drinking also recorded the highest hedonic and self-expression scores, providing the most pleasure for the club member, and as the most appropriate avenue through which the member can portray their sense of self. Neither gender differences, nor varying levels of cellar size, wine knowledge levels or wine club participation resulted in significantly different levels of EI. However, a small but important sub-group of respondents did display higher levels of EI. This group, the wine specialist, not only displayed higher EI, but participated more often in wine club activities, had higher levels of wine knowledge, spent more per month on wine, had larger wine cellars, and were more likely to drink wine daily than the Decanter Club member on the whole. A secondary objective of this research was to investigate the impact of winery visitation on post-visit purchasing behaviour. Although prior research suggests that winery visitation has little impact upon future sales activity, this claim was not supported in the Decanter Club setting. In fact, a substantial proportion of members either had made a repeat purchase of the winery's wines subsequent to the visit, or expressed an intention to do so.

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  • Foregone profit in the wine industry

    Neuninger, Rosemarie; Mather, Damien William; Duncan, Tara (2015-06-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: Wine awards are frequently used as extrinsic cues for wine categories. The aim of this paper is to show the forgone profit arising from failures to make optimal use of awards when positioning wine brands to consumer segments. Methods and Results: Four award statuses were tested: a well-known award, multiple awards, a fictitious award used as a control (an award without consumer trust) and, no award. Participants tasted eight wine samples: the first four without extrinsic cues; the next four used extrinsic cues with varying award status. Each sample was rated for liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Low-involvement consumers’ perceived liking and price willing to pay were improved by multiple (real gold) awards compared to high-involvement consumers. Conclusions: Trust in awards increased the price consumers were willing to pay for wine with an award. For high-involvement consumers who distrusted awards, multiple wine awards and fictitious awards negatively influenced perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report on the combined influence of wine awards and consumers’ sensory perceptions of wine on perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay.

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  • Wine maturation using high electric field

    Talele, Sadhana; Benseman, Mark (2013)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Wine maturation can take a long time and consumes storage space which can be a drawback while considering commercial aspect of wine making. In the past scientists have carried out experiments on maturing wine quickly using ultrasounds or gamma radiations. This study reports about maturing wine with high electric field at different frequencies applied for a short time duration. The electric field intensity and the frequency of the field along with the exposure time of wine to this field seem to be important parameters that could affect the the treated wine. Results obtained are encouraging and have a potential for commercial interest.

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  • Consumer perceptions of wine brand names

    Forbes, S. L.; Dean, D.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Successful companies are often associated with strong brand names that convey meaning and imagery to consumers. There is a considerable body of evidence that brand names are associated to consumer perceptions of quality and their purchase intentions, and the brand name attribute is has been found to be important to wine consumers during the purchase decision making process. This paper seeks to examine the influence of actual wine brand names on consumer perceptions of quality and price, in the absence of any other product information or prior brand experience. This study firstly categorised New Zealand wine brand names and then provided examples from these seven categories to respondents via an online questionnaire. This study provides evidence that a brand name, in the absence of other product information, influences consumer perceptions of quality and price, and their purchase intentions, and that some categories of brand names perform better than others.

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  • Exploring brand associations in wine purchases

    Ghose, K.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The brand is increasingly being seen as the most valuable intangible asset for any organisation and building the brand perception ranks as a top management priority in today’s market (Robbins, 1996; Ailwadi and Keller 2004). The wine industry contributes significantly to New Zealand’s economy and retailers are the final point at which manufacturers could possibly influence consumers’ purchasing behaviour and attitude towards the brand (Thomas 2000). This research divides Christchurch wine consumers into European & non –European ethnic segments and investigates the importance of brand associations for the wine consumer with a focus on retail . Results show that the evaluation patterns and perceptions of wine differ between ethnic groups, and have an impact on the consumer’s wine budget.

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  • Consumer perceptions of wine brand names

    Forbes, S. L.; Dean, D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to categorise wine brand names and examine consumer perceptions of these categories in terms of quality and price, as well as their purchase intentions, ability to pronounce and comfort in asking for the brand name in a store or restaurant. Design/methodology/approach: This study provided examples from seven wine brand name categories to respondents via an online questionnaire. Findings: This paper provides evidence that a brand name, in the absence of other product information, influences consumer perceptions of quality and price, and their purchase intentions.

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  • Wine purchasing: Planned or unplanned behaviour

    Forbes, Sharon L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This exploratory research examines the planned and unplanned wine purchasing behaviour of consumers across four nations and identifies the factors that influence whether wine is a planned or unplanned purchase. A structured questionnaire and intercept interview technique were used to obtain information from 399 respondents inside supermarkets, liquor stores and specialty wine stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The findings reveal that a majority of consumers do plan to purchase wine before they enter a store. Discounted prices and bottle or label designs were more important to those consumers who made unplanned wine purchases. Factors such as wine knowledge, wine involvement and various demographic characteristics were found to have no significant influence on the proportion of planned to unplanned wine purchasing behaviour. This research suggests to marketers that discount pricing is a strategy that can lead consumers to making unplanned wine purchase decisions.

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  • Consumer perceptions of wine brand names

    Forbes, S. L.; Dean, D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand researchers attempted to link types of brand names with consumer attitudes and purchase intensions. While their findings provide some support for the notion that brand names matter to wine consumers, the researchers were surprised to learn how well and how poorly some of the brand name categories performed.

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  • Wine Grape Bioactive Production & Release Following Leaf Plucking & Pulsed Electric Field Treatment, & Wine Industry Applications

    Rozhkova, Alexandra 'Sasha' (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The research findings presented in this thesis describe some of the interactions that can take place between the climate and the endogenous metabolism of Vitis vinifera. Leaf plucking is a traditional vineyard management tool commercially used to mediate microclimates, optimize environmental stress exposure and minimise pathogenicity among vines. Bioactives play an important role in wine and contribute heavily to the quality and sensory attributes of the product. Pinot Noir (PN) and Sauvignon Blanc (SB) grapes from Canterbury, New Zealand were macerated to produce juice and wine used in this study. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment is a relatively new food processing method that induces electropermeabilization in the berry skins, promoting leaching and consequently extraction of vacuole bound bioactives. The main objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of leaf plucking and PEF processing over various maceration times, as a means of manipulating the bioactive content in grape juice and wine. The results of this study showed the application of a PEF treatment following crushing of the berries has the ability to regulate extraction of a variety of phenolics, such as the anthocyanins in PN, and the phenolic acids in SB. Microfermentation of the juice was carried out to produce a corresponding wine and the resultant analysed. Juice samples from PN treated grapes were also shown to increase Caco-2 cell viability following a peroxide stress exposure. It was shown that various levels of leaf plucking (field treatment) had less of an impact than PEF processing on many of the biochemical and quality parameters measured. The results of this study also indicate a varied response to the field treatment effect on the vitamin C content, antioxidant capacity and on the colour intensity in PN juice. The PN wine production was deemed unsuccessful due to poor berry quality and reduced yield. The SB juice samples showed a different response to the field treatment with respect to soluble sugar and vitamin C content. It was shown that SB wine made from PEF treated grapes required a shorter maceration period of 1.5 hours as opposed to 12 hours to reach similar levels of extracted phenolic compounds. Variation between the two cultivars was evident, primarily due to cultivar determined differences in berry morphology and physiology. It was therefore appropriate to present the two cultivars separately and independently of one another. An increase in the bioactive compound levels in juice and wine products has been shown to increase health promoting properties and improve the quality of red wines, while helping to reduce the risk of microbial contamination and spoilage of white wines. The local and international wine industry shows consistent economic growth. The optimization of leaf plucking and PEF processing has the commercial potential to modernize the wine industry, encourage exclusivity, and promote the quality of the final product.

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  • WineSense: Making sense of wine: Exploring the nature of perceived complexity

    Parr, W.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    So, what do we mean when we sample a wine and say that the wine has complexity? What are we expecting when we are told that one wine is “complex” and another is relatively “simple”? That is, what does a complex wine have that a less-complex wine does not have? And what is the relation between perceived complexity in a wine and perceived wine aging potential? We do not as yet have clear answers to these questions, but such questions are being explored in a new programme of research involving collaboration between sensory scientists at Lincoln University in New Zealand, and at two French universities.

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  • The Population Biology of New Zealand Wine Yeasts and Their Contribution to Wine Styles

    Knight, Sarah (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Microbes perform essential processes vital to the functioning of the biosphere and have wide reaching impacts on global economies for the roles they play in producing quality agricultural commodities. They are widely used as model systems to test fundamental hypotheses from a range of scientific disciplines, uncovering invaluable knowledge about biological processes. Despite their undisputed importance to both fundamental science and commercial enterprises, we have a poor understanding of microbial population biology and ecology and how these patterns and processes affect the production of quality agricultural goods. This thesis focuses on the model research eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and takes advantage of its and other fungal species’, commercial applications in wine making. I begin by quantifying the population processes occurring in the New Zealand (NZ) metapopulation of S. cerevisiae. I sampled over ten thousand isolates from a variety of native and vineyard associated niches from six different winemaking regions, spanning over 1 000 km across NZ. From these, hundreds of genotypes were obtained and used in a suite of comprehensive quantitative analyses of population structure and gene-flow. Within geographic regions, these reveal no differentiation between native or vineyard associate samples or between populations residing in different niches. Between regions (on scales larger than ~100 km), a complex picture of varying degrees of population differentiation and migration was revealed. These patterns are in line with the movement of fruit by the NZ wine industry and suggest human associated gene-flow may affect microbial population patterns and diversity. From here I investigate the ecology of S. cerevisiae and target my research away from the well understood fruit and ferment niches. As fruit is ephemeral, S. cerevisiae requires a strategy to survive when this energy rich resource is not available. While it has been isolated from soil and bark samples in previous studies, including the above population genetic analysis, what S. cerevisiae is doing in this ‘woodland’ niche is unknown. I hypothesised that S. cerevisiae employs a life history strategy targeted at self-preservation rather than growth outside of the fruit niche and thus resides in these alternate niches in a sporulated state. Using soil agar as a proxy for the soil niche, I provide evidence that S. cerevisiae is able to sporulate in the presence of soil nutrients and does so in a way that maximises its potential reproductive success upon germination. While there are many other aspects of this hypothesis that require experimental verification, this is the first step in understanding the ecology of S. cerevisiae outside of the fruit niche. I then move on to investigate the potential consequences these observed population patterns have on a commercially important agricultural commodity: wine. Agricultural products derived from the same genotype display differential geographic phenotypes in their physical and sensorial signatures, adding economic value and distinctiveness to products. Historically this has been attributed to complex interactions between local soils, climate and agricultural practices and is collectively known as terroir, or sense of place. The potential for microbes to contribute to this regional distinction has been ignored until recently; however there is growing evidence to suggest that microbial communities and populations vary with geography. Here I perform the first general test for a microbial aspect to terroir using wine as a model system and take advantage of the genetically well characterised S. cerevisiae population described in this thesis. I experimentally demonstrate significant differentiation of wine phenotypes by yeasts derived from different geographic regions, providing the first evidence that microbes contribute to the regional distinctiveness of wine and potentially agricultural products generally. This reveals the importance of microbial populations on the regional identity of agricultural commodities and suggests that long-term implementation of agricultural practices that maintain differential microbial diversity could have direct economic implications as well as being desirable in terms of employing agricultural practices that increase responsible environmental stewardship and maintain microbial biodiversity. Finally I investigated whether fungal species diversity in the grape juice and during fermentation is correlated with the final concentration of three volatile thiols important to wine aroma and flavour. The species of Saccharomyces driving the ferment was found to significantly correlate with thiol concentration, particularly 4MMP, with higher proportions of S. uvarum affording higher concentrations of 4MMP. Additionally, the fungal communities in the initial juice were found to correlate with the thiol concentrations in the wine. Genera identified as being the main drivers of this effect are known to influence vine and fruit health rather than contribute to fermentation itself, suggesting the effects of microbial populations on wine thiol concentration begins in the vineyard. This reiterates the need to have a better understanding of the interactions between microbial populations and agricultural products and has implications for the management of fungal diversity and disease in these systems. Overall, this thesis provides a significant body of knowledge to both fundamentally and commercially important fields. It highlights the need to better understand the ecology of microbial populations not only in a fundamental sense but also for commercial imperatives.

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  • Climate change and grape wine quality: a GIS approach to analysing New Zealand wine region

    Shanmuganathan, S; Narayanan, A; Sallis, P (2012-12-11)

    Book item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The influences of seasonal climate variability on the phenological dynamics of certain terrestrial communities observed mostly since the mid‐20th century are seen as leading to unprecedented consequences (Richard, et al., 2009). The potential impacts of the phenomenon on the phenological development and in turn on the species composition of certain specific plant, insect, aquatic, bird and animal communities evolved in parallel over millions of years to form the existing “make‐up” of what is referred to as the “biodiversity” or “endemic species” of these natural habitats, are depicted as significant (Peñuelas and Estiarte, 2010). Scientific research results have revealed that the recent rapid climate change effects on these systems, more specifically during the last few decades, have resulted in presently being seen “temporal mismatch in interacting species”. Such ecological observations are even described as early vital signs of imminent “regime shifts” in the current base climate of these regions or latitudes (Schweiger, Settele, Kudrna, & Klotz, 2008: Saino, et al., 2009). On the other hand, climatologists portray the major cause for such rapid “climate regime shifts” and the consequent impacts on the survival of so called co‐evolved species, as anthropogenic (Anderson, Kelly, Ladley, Molloy, & Terry, 2011). For this reason, research relating to climate change impacts on vegetation spread over landscapes, phenological development and population dynamics of susceptible communities, in some cases even with potential threat for total extinction of “endangered species” under future climate change, has in recent years gained enormous momentum. In fact, this unprecedented attention has also drawn greater scrutiny and controversies at never seen before proportions in a way hindering any form of formal research on the phenomenon (Shanmuganathan & Sallis, 2010).

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  • Sustainability and the New Zealand Wine Industry

    Wang, Ying (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis seeks to address the research question – what motivates the wine companies in New Zealand toward sustainability practices? Through interviews with representatives from fourteen wine companies, this study finds that while market incentives are identified as the key driver, there is a strong engagement with moral and ethical discourses in the participants’ discussion of their own, as well as their companies’, sustainability motivations. In these moral and ethical discourses, individuals’ values and beliefs are often perceived as the normative core that challenges, and substantiates, the common ‘business case’ mentality. This is indicative of change in the social value system, as well as in the business’ conception of its place in society. The study concludes that although many of the participating companies’ involvement with sustainability practices is still largely market-oriented, such a business case is often rooted in, and sustained through, a normative case which is embedded in individuals’ moral and ethical pursuits. In addition to these empirical findings, this thesis also aims to make a theoretical contribution to the field of business ethics by examining relevant moral and ethical issues in the business arena.

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  • Digitising New Zealand wine regions: an initial investigation

    Shanmuganathan, S (2012-12-11)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    New Zealand’s climate and soil or the “ Terroir” along with carefully selected suitable grape varieties or the “Cultiva” that allow the varieties to only just ripe have made the country’s wine regions world famous over the last decade. Hence, understanding the nexuses between such unique climate, soil and variety combinations is significantly vital to the future of New Zealand wine industry. The wine interpretations, for example, Hawke’s Bay Sauvignon Blancs described as mouthfilling, riper and rounder than the more penetrating zingly Sauvignon Blancs from Marlborough or Auckland’s reds portrayed as an earthy, spicy and warmth contrasting to those from the southern that are seen as possessing fresh, vibrant and fruit characters, in fact say a lot about the “Terroir” and “Cultiva”. Interestingly, within some wine regions, there are sub-regions and some instances even within vineyards so called “within-field” variability in soil and climate conditions that seem to influence wine styles to greater extents. Such exceptional environmental conditions, combined with grape varieties and wine making talents have resulted in premium wine styles that have earned New Zealand winemakers a number of accolades in international wine events and soaring wine prices in overseas, especially in UK and USA. Nonetheless, New Zealand wine regions have been poorly mapped when compared to other fine-wine producing countries. In this context, the paper looks at digitising soil, climate, environmental (independent) and wine quality (dependent) related data for mapping and analysing New Zealand’s wine regions at different scales, such as “macro”, “meso” and “within-field”, ultimately for establishing the co-relations between the factors associated with grape vine growth and wine quality ratings.

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  • Biosecurity: a significant issue for wine tourism?

    Hall, C Michael (2004)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    People may be significant vectors for vine diseases and pests. Yet despite the potential biosecurity risks of visitation few New Zealand wineries have biosecurity strategies in place. The paper therefore aims to examine biosecurity threats to wineries in terms of first, visitor understanding of terms used in customs declaration and their relation to their perception of vineyards; and second, the behaviours of winery visitors. In order to undertake an exploratory assessment of biosecurity risks associated with wine tourism a short convenience survey was undertaken of winery visitors in the Canterbury, Marlborough and Central Otago wine regions of the South Island of New Zealand in January-March 2002. The survey had 324 respondents of which 69 were international visitors. The demographic profile of respondents was similar to previous profiles of New Zealand wine tourists. The results indicated that relatively few respondents recognised a vineyard as a farm therefore raising concerns about the extent to which present customs forms may identify winery or vineyard visits. Of equal concern was the extent to which the same clothing items are used from one winery visit to another, and on different trips. The paper concludes by noting the urgent need to develop more appropriate biosecurity strategies for wineries and vineyards in the light of the development of wine tourism.

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  • Internationalization of the Yarra Valley Wine Industry Cluster

    Sedoglavich, Milan (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research investigates the ways in which firms in the cluster approach the process of internationalization through exploring the influence of business clustering and how it benefits firms in entering foreign markets. The purpose was to understand this process to enable firms to develop successful international strategies to expand in foreign markets. The focus of the study is on the Yarra Valley Wine Industry Cluster, the oldest wine growing region in Victoria, Australia. This research examined of Australian wineries to join together in order to achieve greater competitiveness in collaboration when entering foreign markets due to ever increasing global competition. This paper was an exploratory study that used qualitative information gathered from the case study firms to provide practical framework for the execution of the research using a multiple-case study design. The findings show the following: first, some of the wineries gain their perceptions of the foreign markets from their relationships with, as well as, by the input and suggestions of the distributors, agents, and partners in a particular market, while others seem to distance themselves from their international environments and only focus on serving domestic/local markets exclusively. Second, personal networks play an important role when it comes to the internationalization process of the wineries because they provide access to market knowledge. Third, cooperation among cluster firms plays a very limited role in assisting wineries in foreign market expansion; it has only been of benefit when it came to dealing with local issues. The cluster has played only a minor role, if any, when it comes to the internationalization of the cluster firms. Clustering has been identified as a place where wineries exchange knowledge, and techniques, in regards to wine production, or come together in a joint effort to sort out local issues. However, the cluster does not provide assistance to individual wineries entering international marketplaces. In conclusion there was a distinctive lack of active support and organization from the cluster with regard to the international expansion due to the lack of leadership and joint direction among cluster members. This is where local government could take more proactive role to facilitate better usage of geographical clusters. The findings could improve the company decision-making process. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of clustering as a means for the future international expansion can be useful in helping to develop international strategies for firms. This would be of great significance to business practitioners because this may have a crucial impact on the competitive advantage of firms in foreign markets. In addition to having significant implications for practice, the investigation has implications for international business research because it provides a better understanding of the role of a cluster in the internationalization.

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  • The effects of alternating electric fields on wine

    Lu, Xiaohua (2013-09-25)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Maturation of wine, also called ageing, is an important process in making premium wine. During this process, many compounds change in concentration, and these changes are responsible for colour and flavour changes that contribute to the complexity of matured wine. However, ageing is an expensive process due to the time taken, frequently years, the cost of which cannot be recovered until sale. Alternating electrical fields have purportedly been shown to accelerate ageing of wine as judged by informal sensory trials, and by limited results in the scientific literature. This research aimed to quantity the changes due to electric fields in terms of sensory and chemical science. Wine ageing machines (WAM) equipped with alternating electric fields were used to treat red wines (Cabernet Merlot, Pinot Noir and Merlot Cabernet Sauvignon) and white wine (Sauvignon Blanc). There were three versions of WAM: a flow-through WAM from the University of Waikato, a flow-through WAM2 (a modified version of the original), and a static WAM. In the first two, the wine flows through glass tubing between the charged plates 1 cm apart. In the static WAM, tubes containing wine are suspended between vertical plates. In the present study, electric fields were adjusted with different frequencies and strengths. The wines were physicochemically analysed by ultraviolet spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Further, sensory tests were conducted between control wines and WAM-treated wines. Only flow-through WAM2 treated Sauvignon Blanc appeared to show an absorbance difference in the wavelength range of 230 to 350 nm, but the difference was finally interpreted as artifactual arising from electronic noise in the spectrophotometer. Further, other WAM-treated wines did not show any sensory or colour differences compared with control wines that could not be attributed to noise. In LC-MS (/MS) studies, several compounds were shown to vary with treatment, notably 2-furoic acid in white wine. However, the differences observed were inconsistent and might have been due to statistical variation that can arise in 1 in 20 events by chance alone. It was concluded that these WAMs had no effect on wine ageing in the manner they were applied here.

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  • Distribution Channels for Wine Tourism in New Zealand

    Liu, Ying (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examines the structure of the distribution channels and the underlying factors influencing the most prominent channel choices within the wine tourism industry in New Zealand. This research specifically compares wine tourism in Marlborough and Auckland. It aims to provide a better understanding of the distribution channels for practitioners in the wine tourism industry, with the hope of assisting them to develop their wine tourism businesses successfully and manage the businesses growth effectively. This is a destination-based study performed by employing qualitative approaches focusing on the supply-side through semi-structured interviews. These in-depth interviews were conducted with the owners or managers of the local wine tour operators and wineries in the two regions. The findings generally show that wine tourism businesses place a clear priority on direct distribution of their wine tourism product to visitors “at destination”; the majority of customers of all these businesses are independent visitors. Specifically, overseas independent tourists comprise the largest portion of customers to local wine tour operators in Marlborough and Auckland. The wine tour operators work more actively with intermediaries and reach tourists “in market”, “while travelling” and “at destination” than wineries in these two regions. Marlborough wineries and Auckland wine tour operators and wineries receive domestic corporate groups, most of whom are approached “at destination” with direct distribution. Compared with wineries in Marlborough, more corporate groups use Auckland wine tour operators to visit wineries. Marlborough wineries and wine tour operators, and Auckland wine tour operators receive more international visitors, whereas the majority of visitors to Auckland wineries are from Auckland. When considering the function of wine tourism distribution channels, information provision, reservation and purchase are nearly equally important to local wine tour operators in both Marlborough and Auckland; the most widely used functions for Marlborough wineries is information provision; for Auckland wineries, information provision and purchase play significant roles in the distribution of wine tourism product. Factors influencing distribution channel choice include information provision cost, commissions, businesses’ attitudes towards tourism, perceptions of the Internet, service diversity, capacity, accessibility, availability, market segments, reputation and nature of intermediaries.

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  • An assessment of wine knowledge amongst global consumers

    Forbes, S.; Cohen, D.; Dean, D.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Purpose – The importance of product class knowledge is well documented in consumer behaviour literature. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge of consumers in New Zealand, Australia, the UK and USA as it pertains to the specific product class of wine. Design/methodology/approach – The authors adapted or introduced tests to analyse consumer objective knowledge, subjective knowledge and familiarity with the product class of wine. Interviewer administered questionnaires were completed with 399 respondents inside supermarkets, general liquor stores and specialty wine stores in New Zealand, Australia, the UK and USA. Findings – The research found a positive correlation between subjective and objective knowledge, and another between familiarity and objective knowledge. Actual wine knowledge was found to be higher amongst Australian consumers than those from the other nations. Objective knowledge was also found to have significant relationships with gender, education and store choice. Research implications – The findings suggest practical implications for wine producers and marketers in terms of segmenting the market or successfully appealing to consumers based on their level of wine knowledge. Originality/value – The authors extended earlier product class knowledge research by examining wine consumers in multiple countries with regards to objective knowledge, subjective knowledge and familiarity.

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